Apocopation - Turkish Vowel Loss

Apocopation - Turkish Vowel Loss


Apocopation - Turkish Vowel Loss


Apocopation - Turkish Vowel Loss

Apocopate

To cut off or drop the last letter or part of a word.

A Few Turkish nouns lose their final vowel [apocopate] when a suffix which starts with a vowel is added to the noun.




Example of Apocopation

Adding suffix -im my:
The word izin leave, time off →
izn-im my leave.
[NOT izin-im]

The final vowel of the noun root is dropped when adding a suffix which begins in a vowel.



Adding a vowel DOES affect the Noun


burun nose →
burnum my nose →
burnumda on my nose →
[burn-um-da]

ağız mouth →
ağzı his mouth →
ağzında in his mouth →
[ağz-ı-nda]

beyin brain 
beynimden from my brain →
[beyn-im-den]

kayıp loss →
kaybımızdan from our loss →
[kayb-ımız-dan]

Erkek arkadaşımın ismi Mehmet'tir.
My boy-friend's name is Mehmet
[ism-i = his name]
The suffix -i his affects the noun isim name

Ali'nin alnı terliyor
Ali's forehead is sweating
[Ali'nin aln-ı]

The word [aln-i "forehead"] is in the possessive relationship: this affects the noun alın shortening it to aln



Adding a consonant does NOT affect the Noun


izindeyim I am on leave
[izin-de-yim]

The vowel of izin is not lost as the first suffix -de begins with a consonant.

ağızda in the mouth
[ağız-da]

beyinden from the brain
[beyin-den]

oğul from the son
[oğul-dan]

kayıptan from the loss
[kayıp-tan]



Examples Turkish vowel loss with the possessive adjective:



  • fikir → fikrim my idea

  • keyif → keyfi his/her joy

  • oğul → oğlumuz our son

  • boyun → boynu his neck

  • nakil → naklin your (sing.) transport

  • gönül → gönlüm my desire

  • isim → ismim my name

  • nakit → nakdiniz your (plur.) cash

  • kayıp → kaybınızden from your loss


The rules of Consonant Mutation are still observed in the apocopated noun.

Exampled by the final consonant nakit cash has mutated to its soft form -d

kaybı his loss has apocopated from kayıp.

Some Single Syllable Words do not soften their root vowel:
vakit (arb.) time, occasion →
vaktim my time



Turkish Apocopating Noun List


The following nouns lose an internal vowel from the noun stem when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added.

Many of these words are in constant daily use.





















































































































































































































































































































































































Turkish Direct Object Example English
Aciz Aczi (NOT acizi) Impotence
Ağız Ağzı Mouth
Ahit Ahdi Injunction
Akıl Aklı Intelligence
Akit Akti Treaty
Akis Aksi Reflection
Alın Alnı Forehead
Asıl Aslı Origin
Asır Asrı Century
Azim Azmi Determination
Bağır Bağrı Bosom
Bahis Bahsi (Bahse girmek) Bet, Wager (to make a bet)
Beyin Beyni Brain
Boyun Boynu Neck
Burun Burnu Nose
Cisim Cismi Substance, matter, object
Cürüm Cürmü Crime
Defin Defni Burial
Devir Devri Period
Ecir Ecri Reward/Wage
Emir Emri Order, Command
Fasil Fasli Part, chapter
Fetih Fethi Conquest
Fikir Fikri Idea
Geniz Genzi Nostril
Göğüs Göğsü Breast
Gönül Gönlü Heart/Desire
Hacim Hacmi Volume
Haciz Haczi Distraint, confiscation, seizure
Hapis Hapsi Prison
Hasım Hasmı Enemy, foe, rival
Hazım Hazmı Digestion
Hışım Hışmı Rage/Anger
Hüzün Hüznü Grief
İlim İlmi Science
İsim İsmi Name
İzin İzni Leave/Time off
Kadir Kadri Worth/Value
Kahır Kahrı Anxiety
Karın Karnı Stomach
Kasıt Kastı Intention, purpose
Kayın Kaynı Brother-in-law
Kayıp Kaybı Loss
Kesir Kesri Fraction (in maths)
Keşif Keşfi Discovery
Keyif Keyfi Pleasure
Kısım Kısmı Part (of)
Metin Metni Text
Nabız Nabzı Pulse
Nakil Nakli Transport
Nakit Nakdi Cash
Nazım Nazmı Verse, poetry
Nefis Nefsi Self, personality
Nehir Nehri River
Nesir Nesri Prose
Neşir Neşri Publication, broadcast
Nutuk Nutku Speech, oration
Oğul Oğlu Son
Resim Resmi Picture
Sabır Sabrı Patience
Satıh Sathı Superficie, plane
Seyir Seyri Motion
Sıkıt Sıktı Miscarriage
Şehir Şehri City
Şekil Şekli Form/Shape
Şükür Şükrü Gratitude
Tavır Tavrı Mode/Manner
Ufuk Ufku Horizon
Vakit Vakti Time, occasion
Vasıf Vasfı Characteristic
Zehir Zehri Poison
Zihin Zihni Intellect
Zulüm Zulmü Tyranny, cruelty

Many of these words, especially the parts of the body are in constant daily use.



Execption to Apocopation for Proper Names


The word şehir city itself does apocopate.

However actual town names do not apocopate as they are Proper Nouns.

Eskişehir'e gidiyorum.
I am going to Eskişehir.

Nevşehir'imiz çok güzel.
Our Nevşehir is very beautiful.


Güncelleme Tarihi: 21 Mart 2018, 10:55
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