The Turkish Verb 'to be' Positive


The Turkish Verb "to be" Positive






The Turkish Verb "to be" Positive

The verbto be is used in sentences to describe a state of being

  • The house is blue.

  • It will be a quick journey.

  • If it is a big house.

  • If it had not been out of sight.


 



Origin of Turkish Verb "to be"

The verb "to be" is a defective verb imek whose stem was i-.

It is found in four forms of vowel harmony i ı u ü

It also mutates to -y in the past and other forms when being suffixed to a word.

This is no longer important in learning Turkish.

It gives the reason for many of the suffixes in modern use for the verb "to be".

 



Turkish Verb to be: Positive I am, you are etc.


The Verb "to be" takes the form of a suffix in Turkish.

It is subject to Vowel Harmony.

Consonant Mutation:
3rd person suffixes d ↔ t when suffixed to words ending in:
[ç f h k p s ş t]

The buffer letter -y- is used when this suffix to a word which terminates in a vowel.



Turkish 'to be' Present Tense Suffixes



  • I am‑(y)im ‑(y)ım ‑(y)üm ‑(y)um

  • you are‑sin ‑sın ‑sün ‑sun

  • he/she/it is‑dir / ‑tir ‑dır /‑tır ‑dür / ‑tür ‑dur /‑tur

  • we are‑(y)iz ‑(y)ız ‑(y)üz ‑(y)uz

  • you are ‑siniz ‑sınız ‑sünüz ‑sunuz

  • they are‑dirler /‑tirler ‑dırlar / ‑tırlar ‑dürler‑ / ‑türler ‑durlar / ‑turlar


 



Turkish "to be" Present Tense Examples


  • Hastayım.[hasta yım]I am ill.

  • Hastayız.We are ill.

  • Mutlusun.You are happy.

  • Mutlu bir kadınsın.You are a happy lady.

  • Yorgundurlar.[yorgun-durlar]They are tired.

  • Yorgunuz.[yorgun-uz]We are tired.

  • Evim kırmızıdır.My house is red.

  • Kırmızı bir evdir.It is a red house.

  • Paltom uzundur.My overcoat is long.

  • Uzun bir paltodur.It is a long overcoat.

  • Köpeğim küçüktür.My dog is small.

  • Küçük bir köpektir.It is a small dog.

  • Cadde geniştir.The road is wide.

  • Geniş bir caddedir.It is a wide road.

  • Kedim mutludur.My cat is happy.

  • Kediniz kahverengi renkliydir.Your cat is brown coloured.

  • Odam boştur.[boş-tur]My room is full.

  • Odam doludur.[dolu-dur]My room is big.

  • Mor renkli bir evdir.It is a purple coloured house.

  • Ev mor renkliydir.The house is coloured.



Third Person Plural is very often omitted in conversation.

It only for emphasis and for public advice and warnings or stating fact:



A Turkish Public Notice showing the use of -dir/-tir










A Turkish Public Notice showing the use of -dir
A Turkish Public Notice showing the use of -dir


İtifaye çikişidır
[çikiş-i-dir]
park etmek yasaktır
[yasak-tır]


It is the fire-station exit
parking is forbidden





Turkish "to be" Past Tense I was, you were


Past tense idim, idim… → -ydim, ydin… when suffixed to a vowel.

Initial -d becomes -t when suffixed to [p ç t k f h s ş]

Often the -ler/-lar plurals are omitted in conversation.



Turkish "to be" Past tense Suffixes



  • ‑(y)dim ‑(y)dım ‑(y)düm ‑(y)dum I was

  • ‑(y)din ‑(y)dın ‑(y)dün ‑(y)dunyou were

  • ‑(y)di ‑(y)dı ‑(y)dü ‑(y)duhe / she / it was

  • ‑(y)dik ‑(y)dık ‑(y)dük ‑(y)dukwe were

  • ‑(y)diniz ‑(y)dınız ‑(y)dünüz ‑(y)dunuzyou were

  • ‑(y)diler ‑(y)dılar ‑(y)düler ‑(y)dularthey were




Turkish "to be" Past Tense Examples


  • kadındıShe was a woman.[kadın-dı]

  • lâzımdılarThey were necessary.[lâzım-dılar]

  • müdürdümI was a director.[müdür-düm]

  • hastaydımI was ill.[hasta-y-dım]

  • mutluydunuzYou were happy.[mutlu-y-dunuz]

  • iyiydinizYou were good.[iyi-ydiniz]

  • mektuptuIt was a book.[mektup-tu]

  • sabahIt was morning.[sabah-tı]

  • çabuktularThey were swift.[çabuk-tular]

  • köprüydüIt was bridge.[köprü-ydü]




Turkish Vowel Harmony Verb "to be"


Both the present and past obey the rules of vowel harmony, which are summed up as follows:

  • Final vowel -a -ı

  • yaşlıyızwe are old[yaşlı-yız]
    yaşlıydıkwe were old[yaşlı-ydık]

  • hastayımI am ill[hasta-yım]
    hastaydımI was ill[hasta-ydım]

  • Final vowel -o -u

  • bir vazodurit is a vase.[vazo-dur]
    bir vazoyduit was a vase.[vazo-ydu]

  • yorgunsunyou are tired.[yorgun-sun]
    yorgundunyou were tired.[yorgun-dun]

  • Final vowel -e -i

  • bir deredirit is a stream[dere-dir]
    bir dereydiit was stream[dere-ydi]

  • zenginsinyou are rich[zengin-sin]
    zengindinyou were rich[zengin-din]

  • Final vowel -ö -ü

  • bir gözdürit is an eye.[göz-dür]
    bir gözdü it was an eye.[göz-dü]

  • Türk'türlerthey are Turkish.[Türk'-türler]
    Türk'tülerthey were Turkish.[Türk'-tüler]




Turkish Consonant Mutation Verb "to be"



  • -dir ⇔ -tir when suffixed to hard consonants ç p h k s t

  • büyüktürit is large
    büyüktü it was large

  • gençtirlerthey are young
    gençtikwe were young

  • yavaştınyou were slow
    çabuktunuzyou were quick

  • sabahtırit is morning
    sabahtıit was morning

  • bir mektupturit is a letter
    bir mektuptuit was a letter

  • bir sepettirit is a basket
    bir sepettiit was a basket

  • bir virüstürit is a virus
    bir virüstüit was a virus

  • felakettirit is a disaster
    felakettiit was a disaster

  • bir polistirit is a policeman
    bir polistiit was a policeman

  • Mehmet' tirIt is Mehmet
    Mehmet' tiIt was Mehmet


Suffixes are not fixed directly to Proper Names.


A comma is used to separate the suffix from a name or title:

İstanbul' dayımI am in Istanbul



Turkish Verb "to be" Present and Past Tense Examples with Vowel Harmony and Consonant Changes.


  • zenginimI am rich
    zengindim I was rich

  • yorgunsumyou are tired
    yorgundunyou were tired

  • pahalıdırit is dear
    pahalıydıit was dear

  • küçüktürit is small
    küçüktüit was small

  • hastayızwe are ill
    hastaydıkwe were ill

  • yaşlısınızyou are old
    yaşlıydınızyou were old

  • yoksuldurlarthey are poor
    yoksuldularthey were poor

  • gençtirlerthey are young
    gençtilerhey were young




Turkish "to be" Positive Interrogative Am I?, Are you?


The interrogative particle -mi? is suffixed with the Personal Pronouns.

It is placed after the word it affects.

  • Turkish 'to be' Questions - Present Positive

  • mıyım? miyim? muyum? müyüm?am I?

  • mısın? misin? musun? müsün?are you?

  • mı? mi? mu? mü?is he / she / it?

  • mıdır? midir? mudur? müdür?is he / she / it?

  • mıyız? miyiz? muyuz? müyüz?are we?

  • mısınız? misiniz? musunuz? müsünüz?are you?

  • -lar mı? -ler mi? -lar mu? -ler mü?are they?

  • mıdırlar? midirler? mudurlar? müdürler?are they?


Except for the 3rd person form -lar mi?it is written separately from the word it affects.

The longer forms which end in -dir are formal.

They are used in instructions and public notices.

Not used in general conversation.



Turkish Present "to be" Positive Question Examples


  • zengin miyim?am I rich?

  • yorgun musun?are you tired?

  • pahalı mı?is it dear?

  • büyük mü?is it big?

  • hasta mıyız?are we ill?

  • yaşlı mısınız?are you old?

  • gençler mi?are they young?

  • yoksullar mı?are they poor?




Turkish Past "to be" Interrogative "Was I?, Were you?"


The Past tense personal endings are added to the question particle -mi

It obeys Vowel harmony but is written separately.

  • Turkish 'to be' Question Past Positive"

  • mıydım? miydim? muydum? müydüm?was I?

  • mıydın? miydin? muydun? müydün?were you?

  • mıydı? miydi? muydu? müydü?is he/she/it?

  • mıydık? miydik, muyduk? müydük?were we?

  • mıydınız? miydiniz? muydunuz? müydünüz?were you?

  • mıydılar? miydiler? muydular? müydüler?are they?




Turkish Past Tense Positive Question Examples


  • acı mıydı?was it bitter?

  • sıcak mıydı?was it hot?

  • hava soğuk muydu?was the weather cold?

  • mutlu muyduk?were we happy?

  • yorgun muydular?were they tired?

  • hasta mıydınız?were you ill?
    ENG:have you been ill?

  • güzel miydi?was she beautiful?

  • ev büyük müydü?was it a large house?




The Turkish Future "will be"


The Future of the verb "to be" is lacking in Turkish.

  • It place is taken by the Future Tense of the Verb olmakto be, to become.

  • Yarın hazır olacağım.
    I will be ready tomorrow.

  • Er geç zengin olacaksın.
    You will become rich sooner or later.

  • Bu gece parti çok güzel olacak.
    It will be a great party tonight.


 

  • The Turkish Verb "to be" Positive, The Turkish Verb "to be" Positive



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