Turkish Language and Grammar FAQs
Turkish Language and Grammar FAQs
The FAQ's - Sıkça Sorulan Sorular (SSS)
- FAQ (01) How many Vowels are there in Turkish?
- There are eight vowels in Turkish A E I İ O Ö U Ü
- For Vowel Harmony purposes they are divided into two groups.
- A-UnDotted Group AIOU
- E-Dotted Group EİÖÜ
- FAQ (02) Why is a buffer letter sometimes -y- and at other times -n- is used?
- Buffer letter -y- for the Object Condition, -yi as in kediyi the cat
Also Motion Towards Condition, -ye as in kediye to the cat when these words are not already extended by a suffix.
- Buffer -y- is only used suffixed to a bare noun stem in the first suffix position.
- It becomes -n- when it is the second suffix which is added to the word, kedisini his cat and kedisine to his cat.
- Buffer Letter -n- is only used when the Objective or Motion Towards suffixes are in second suffix position.
- This is to alert the listener that a suffix is already preceding.
- The Rule is:
Buffer letter -n- is used on nouns which have already been extended by the addition of a suffix.
- FAQ (03) Why are some words repeated in Turkish for no apparent reason?
- yavaş slow. As an adjective it describes a noun "A slow car"
- But repeated it is used as an adverb yavaş yavaş means slowly
- As an adverb this describes a manner of doing something. "He drove the car slowly"
- Adjectives when repeated become adverbs in Turkish.
- This is a normal part of the Grammar.
- FAQ (04) What are the main differences in Turkish and English pronunciation
- The letter C changes in Turkish. It is pronounced as an English "J"
- English name John is spelt Con in Turkish.
- The Turkish word cam "glass material" is pronounced jam in English
- The rule is see a "C" and say a "J"
- Letter C is pronounced as English "J" See cam and say jam "glass (the material)"
- Letter Ş is pronounced as English "SH" See şef and say shef "chief"
- Letter Ç is pronounced as English "CH" See çek and say chek "pull"
- FAQ (05) Turkish has a funny letter Ğ with a hat on What does it do?
- This is the Turkish "soft g" (yumaşak g)
- This letter is not pronounced at all, it merely lengthens the preceding vowel.
- It is very like the silent "gh" in the English words light, freight, ought..
- The rule is see a ğ with a hat on then keep it silent.
- FAQ (06) Why does gitmek to go change its letter -t to a -d in gidiyor?
- Verb Root Spelling Exceptions:
- Only four verbs change their root spelling from -t to -d when adding a vowel:
- gitmek to go → gidiyorum I am going
- ditmek to shred this verb is often used in recipes becomes didiyor he shreds
- tatmak to taste (of) → tadıyor it tastes (of..)
- etmek to do/perform → ediyorum I am doing etc.
- This verb etmek includes all verbs containing etmek
- kaybetmek to lose and affetmek to pardon, to excuse which soften the -etmek part of the verb:
- kaybediyorum I am losing/I lose
- affediyorum I am pardoning/I pardon
- All other verbs retain their original spelling, for instance:
- bitmek to end bitiyor it is finishing NOT bidiyor
- batmak - to sink batıyor it is sinking NOT badıyor
- FAQ (07) When do I use sağ olun instead of teşekkür ederim for saying thank you?
- sağ olun be healthy, be strong is used as thank you for a service which was not necessarily needed to be performed or for which someone has gone out of his way to help you.
- teşekkür ederim thank you [Lit: a thanking perform I [arb.] is used in normal circumstances and receiving.
- The rule is: If in doubt then use teşekkür ederim.
- FAQ (08) What happened to the letter -e- in demek to say as it becomes diyorum I say?
- The present tense sign is -iyor
- If a verb stem ends in a vowel it loses this vowel when the present tense sign is added.
- Turkish abhors two vowels together as there are no native diphthongs.
- So demek must also lose this final vowel.
- This leaves a bare verb stem as the letter d- only.
- Hence demek becomes d-iyorum, d-iyorsun.
- The same applies to all other two letter verb stems yemek becomes yiyorum.
- The Future Tense also changes.
- demek diyeceğim and yemek yiyeceksin you will eat.
(-(y)ecek is added to the verb root of ye-mek thus producing producing ye-y-ecek which has historically abraded to becomeyiyecek).
- The Subject Participle demek becomes diyen, diyenler who says, yemek becomes yiyen, yiyenler who eats.
- There are exceptions to this group:
- The verbal Nouns deyince on saying deyip also saying and yeyince on eating and yeyip also eating. do not abrade →
- FAQ (09) I do not understand the Infinitive please explain about it.
- The Infinitive is the name of a verb such as swim (verb)
- Its name is "to swim" but in English we often substitute a verbal noun "(the) swimming"
- He is going for a swim.
We are going swimming.
She went to swim in the sea.
- In all these cases anything with "swim" in it is a noun.
- The different tenses are supplied by the verb in the sentence.
- The possessives can also be added -im -in -i.. etc my, your his
- My swimming is good.
Mother is taking Mehmet for a swim.
I want you to swim every day.
- The -k of -mek/-mak is dropped to make the Verbal Noun yüzme swim, swimming, to swim:
- yüzmem my swimming
yüzmen your swimming
yüzmesi his swimming
yüzmeniz your swimming (plural)
yüzmeleri their swimming
- Further suffixes can be added:
- yüzmemden from my swimming
yüzmende in your swimming
yüzmesini his swimming (suffixed as an object)
- Yüzmem iyidir. My swimming is good.
- Geçen yıl yüzmem iyiydi. My swimming was good last year. Past tense.
- Yarın yüzmeleri iyi olacak . Tomorrow, their swimming will be good. Future Tense.
- Ali'nin yüzmesi, Mehmet'in yüzmesinden daha iyidir.
Ali's swimming is better than Mehmet's swimming.
- Ahmet'in gelmemesini istedim.
I wanted Ahmet NOT to come.
[lit: Ahmet's-his-not-coming wanted-I]
- Ahmet'in gelebilmesini istedim.
I wanted Ahmet to be able to come.
- Ahmet'in gelebilmesini istemedim.
I did not want Ahmet to be able to come.
- FAQ (10) Please list the common question words what? why? when?
- where? nerede?
- where to? nereye?
- where from? nereden?
- how? nasıl?
- how much? ne kadar?
- when? ne zaman?
- what? ne?
- why? neden?
- why? niye?
[only used when: indignant/angry/disbelieving]
- what for? niçin?
- who? kim?
- which? hangisi?
- FAQ (11) I am having difficulty recognizing the Object Participle -dik. Please explain.
- The -dik, -duk, -dık, -dük Participle
- This Participle is subject to both Vowel Harmony and Consonant Mutation Rules.
- So you can find -tik, -tuk, -tık, -tük
- If a further suffix with a vowel is added the the final -k is also subject to Consonant Mutation: -diği, -duğu, -dığı, -düğü or -tiği, -tuğu, -tığı, -tüğü
- geldiğim zaman
When I came, When I come
[gel + -diğ + -im)
- uçtuğun halde
Although you fly, Although you flew
[uç + -tuğ + -un]
- yürüdüğü yol
The road that he walks, The road that he walked
[yürü + -düğ + -ü]
- bakmadığımız zaman
When we didn't/don't look,
[bak + -ma + -dığ + -ımız]
- içtiğiniz için
because you (plural polite) drink/drank
[iç + -tiğ + -iniz]
- öpüştükleri zaman
When they kiss/kissed
[öpüş + -tük + -leri]
- The -dik Participle is used both in the Present or Past tenses according to the sentence main verb context.
- Examples of Tense influenced by the Main Verb
- Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya gidiyoruz.
When Ali comes we are going to the shops.
- Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya gittik.
When Ali came we went to the shops.
- both ideas "Ali" and his "coming" become a compound participle (verbal adjective) to describe zaman time.
- This Turkish point of view is different to the "relative when" construction used in English.
- FAQ (11A) Please tell me more about the -dik/-tik -dık/-tık -dük/-tuk -duk/-tük participle.
- A participle is actually and adjective made from a verb form.
- As an adjective in Turkish it must precede the noun which it qualifies.
- It is easily recognised as an adjective by its position in the sentence.
- It looks like a verb. But it is not a verb.
- The verb always comes last in a sentence.
- Hence it is easy to recognize verbs by their terminal position.
- If it is not last in the sentence then generally speaking it will be an adjective.
- Formation: Participle + Possessive Suffix - Noun - Verb
- Oturduğum [Otur-duğ-um] ev budur.
This is the house in which I live.
- En çok sevdiğin [sev-diğ-in yemek nedir?
What is the food that you like best?
- Yazdığı [Yaz-dığ-ı] mektubu aldım.
I have received the letter that he wrote.
- Geldiğimiz [Gel-diğ-imiz] araba çalınmış.
The car in which we came has been stolen, they say.
- Beğendiğiniz [Beğen-diğ-iniz] kumaşı bulamadım.
I could not find the material that you liked.
- Yaptıkları [Yap-tık-ları] iyiliği unutamayacağım.
I shall not be able to forget the kindness that they have shown.
- This participle used for present as well as past time.
- It is identical with the first person plural of the past definite tense.
- A possessive suffix (for person) is added to make it equivalent to a relative pronoun.
- The final -k changes to -ğ before the possessive suffix, except in the plural.
- Oturduğum ev budur.
This is the house in which I live.
- Oturduğun ev budur.
This is the house in which you live.
- Oturduğu ev budur.
This is the house in which he lives.
- Oturduğumuz ev budur.
This is the house in which we live.
- Oturduğunuz ev budur.
This is the house in which you live.
- Oturdukları ev budur.
This is the house in which they live.
- Participles can be used as adjectives:
- Mehmet, söylediğim cevabı beğenmemiş.
Mehmet seemed not to like the answer that I spoke.
- Participles can be used as nouns:
- Mehmet, söylediğimi beğenmemiş
Mehmet seemed not to like what I said.
- Mehmet, söylediğimi beğenmemiş.
Mehmet did not like what I said.
- Mehmet, söylediğini beğenmemiş.
Mehmet did not like what you said.
- Mehmet, söylediğini beğenmemiş.
Mehmet did not like what he said.
- Mehmet, söylediğimizi beğenmemiş.
Mehmet did not like what we said.
- Mehmet, söylediğinizi beğenmemiş.
Mehmet did not like what you said.
- Mehmet, söylediklerini beğenmemiş.
Mehmet did not like what they said.
- FAQ (12) Please explain about The Adjective of Location Suffix. -deki/-teki, -daki/-taki
- The Suffix -deki is an Adjective of Location which descibes where a thing actually is.
- The cat which is on the mat is black
Kilimdeki kedi kara renklidir.
[Lit: Mat-on-which-is cat-the black colour-is.]
- In English: it is a Relative pronouns which is, who is
- The cat "which is on the mat" is black coloured.
- English can omit the "which" relative pronoun: The cat on the mat is black.
- Turkish must describe where the cat is sitting by means of an adjective Kilimdeki kedi
- FAQ (13) Please explain about -ip/-ıp/-up/-üp The Verbal suffix of Apposition meaning and, also.
- Pazara gidip her şey satmak istiyorum.
I want to go to the market and sell everything.
- This is the normal way of saying:
Pazara gidiyorum her şey satmak istiyorum.
I want to go to the market and I want to sell everything.
-ip does not take any other suffixes after it is used.
- If the two verbs are in negative apposition
[i.e. One is positive and the other negative]
the particle de also, and is used to show the apposition.
- Pazara gidip de hiçbir şey satmak istemiyorum. = I want to go to the market and not sell anything.
- The -ip suffix takes the tense, mood and person of the final verb.
- We would like to go and see Rome.
Romaya gidip görmek isteriz.
- Odanın içinde yer bulup oturdu.
He found a place in the room and sat down.
- Çünkü, onlar her zaman bir yolunu bulup istedikleri kadar sigara içiyorlar.
Because they always find a way and smoke as much as they wish.
- Eczaneye gidip bir ilaç almak istemiş.
He wanted to go to the chemist and buy some medicine.
- Bilgisayardaki hataları bulup onaracak program var mı?
Is there a programme to find errors and to repair them on the computer?
- Gelip de halimi gördün mü?
When you came [On coming] did you see the condition that I was in?
- Bilip de anlatmamak.
Knowing and not explaining.
- Bilip de anlatamamak.
To know but not to be able to explain.
- Bilip de bilmemezlikten gelmek
To know and/but to pretend not to know.
- FAQ (14) Tell me about the Direct 0bject Suffix (-i/-ı/-u/ü)
- In English we make both the subject and object of a sentence substantive by the use of the same definite article "the"
- "The" man closed "the" door.
- The subject is understood as substantive in Turkish so it does not need a definite article.
- "The" does not exist in Turkish there is no "the man" is it merely translated as "adam"
- Turkish DOES have a definite article "the"
- It is the object suffix -(y)i -(y)ı -(y)u -(y)ü when added to bare nouns:
- Adam kapıyı [kapı-yı] kapattı
"The" man closed "the" door
- Turkish DOES have a definite article "the" as an object suffix -ni -nı -nu -nü when added to already extended nouns:
- Adam kapısını [kapı-sı-nı] kapattı.
"The" man closed "his" door.
- The -ni suffix makes the extended [already suffixed] noun "his door" substantive as a direct object.
- Direct Object pointer -i for Simple Noun
- Evi boyuyorum. [ev-i] I am painting the house.
- Direct Object pointer -ni for Extended Noun
- Evini boyuyorum. [ev-i-ni] I am painting his house.
- Direct Object pointer -yi for Simple Noun.
- Arabayı boyuyorum. [araba-y-ı] I am painting the car.
- Possessive Pronoun -sı plus Direct object pointer -nı for Extended Noun.
- Arabasını boyuyorum. [araba-sı-nı] I am painting his car.
- Possessive Pronoun -ları plus Object Pointer -nı for Extended Noun.
- Arabalarını boyuyoruz. [araba-ları-n-ı] we are painting their car.
- Possessive Pronoun -sı plus Direct object pointer -nı for Extended Noun
- Arabasını boyuyor musunuz? [araba-s-ı-n-ı] Are you painting his car?
- Possessive Pronoun -ınız plus Direct object pointer -ı for Extended Noun.
- Mehmet, arabanızı boyamıyor mu? [araba-nız-ı] Isn't Mehmet painting your car?
- Possessive Pronoun -si plus Direct object pointer -ni for Extended Noun.
- Kedisini aramıyor muyum? [kedi-s-i-n-i] Aren't I looking for his cat?
- Direct Object Pointer -i
- Beni istiyor musun? [ben -i] Do you want me?
- Direct Object Pointer -i
- Seni istemiyor muyum? [sen -i] Don't I want you?
- The Direct Object Suffix makes the object substantive.
- It is one of the most difficult hurdles for English speakers to surmount when speaking, reading and understanding the Turkish Language.
- FAQ (15) Please describe The Turkish Language in a nutshell for me.
- A Mini Nutshell Overview of The Turkish Language.
- In Turkish words are changed by fixing other words on to them.
- These suffixes show motion towards, location and motion from.
- They change their spelling according to set rules.
- They must follow the same vowel pattern (Vowel Harmony) as the suffixed word.
- They also have a consonant change (Consonant Mutation) for ease of pronunciation.
- The suffixes added to the stem of a verb may indicate its positive or negative form.
- Further suffixes are added for tense and person.
- Further mood meanings to verbs such as "may, might, can, can't" are also in suffix form, thus producing a new word.
- Nouns are suffixed with possessor and the motion or location words are then added.
- There is no word for "the" and also there are no gender forms (no "le" or "la" as in French).
- Adjectives precede their noun and always remain in their basic form no gender thus no agreement.
- The sentence form is SOV Subject, Object, Verb.
- FAQ (16) Tell me about the Position of the Question Particle mi? mı? mu? mü? in sentences.
- The question particle mi? mı? mu? mü? is placed after the item being questioned.
- It is not always the verb that is in question.
- This is the same for English.
- Mehmet, is he going home? Mehmet, eve gidiyor MU?
[Question on the verb: gidiyor mu?]
- Is it home that Mehmet is going to? Mehmet, eve Mİ gidiyor?
[Question on the object: eve mi?]
- It it Mehmet who is going home? Mehmet Mİ, eve gidiyor?
[Question on the subject Mehmet mi?]
- FAQ (17) I hear buyurun everywhere. What does it mean?
- Buyurun, Buyrun, Buyurunuz has many meanings in different situatuions:
- Said to a visitor: Buyurun!
The speaker is happy to welcome you to their home.
- Shopkeepers say : Buyurun
May I help you?
- When offering refreshments to guests: Buyurun!
Please accept this! Please help yourself.
- Entering buildings, lifts (elevators): Buyurun!
- When permission is asked, assent is given with the word buyurun!
Please come in! Please enter! Please do!
- When answering a telephone Buyurun! is used.
- FAQ (18) Please explain the -sin/-sın/-sun/-sün suffix; I always thought it meant "you"?
- When -sin is used WITHOUT a tense sign it signifies let him do..
- Positive Verb Stem: olmak to become/happen/occur becomes Olsun! Let it be!
- Negarive Verb Stem: olmamak not to become becomes Olmasın! Let it not be!
- koşmak to run →
Koşsun Let him run
- The plural Koşsunlar →
Let them run!
- The negative is koşmasın →
let him not run!
- Negative plural is Koşmasınlar! →
Let them not run!
- At the Hamam Turkish Bath you might say:
[Lit: Let the masseur come.]
I am ready for the masseur!
- Don't get mixed up.!
The 3rd ierson imperative ending is added directly to the verb stem:
yazsın Let him write
- If there is NO TENSE SIGN before the -sin or -sinlar then it should be translated as "Let him. (not)" or "Let them (not)"
- If is added to a tense sign as in yazıyorsun then it is the 2nd Person tense sign You are writing
- FAQ (19) What is the difference between her kez, her zaman, daima when talking about instances of time?.
- Zaman (Noun) time is the universally used word for time when:
Doğum günün ne zaman?
When is your birthday?
- Daima (adverb) means always, every time, forever, evermore, ever, forever and ever, forevermore
- It usually is placed first in a sentence:
Daima seni seviyorum.
I will love you forever.
- Turkish uses the Present Continuous seviyorum as it is more vivid than the Simple Present used in English = I love you severim
- kez (noun) means particular (single) occasion(s)
- defa (noun) means occasion
her defasinda = each time
- sefer (noun) means journey
her seferinde = every time [used as an idiom]
- There are other words in general use in Turkish which mean time(s) or occasion(s)
- vakit (noun) is used for the right time for doing something.
- Boş vaktim yok.
I haven't got time to spare
- Vaktin varsa?
If you have time?
- kere (noun) time, times, occasion, instance:
- 1 bir kere once.
- 2 iki kere twice
- 3 uç kere three tımes
- İki kere iki dört eder.
Two times two makes four.
- "her kez" and "her kere" are never used to mean "every time"
- FAQ (20) Why is ile with, and, also sometimes in its full form and sometimes a harmonized suffix -le/-la?
- The word for with, and, also in Turkish is ile
- This is one word which can stand on its own after the word it modifies.
- It does not follow Vowel Harmony Rules but is always written and spoken ile
- Mehmet ile with Mehmet
- domuz ile with the pig
- arkadaşın ile with your friend
- It can also be suffixed to the word as -le -la or -yle/-yla after vowels.
- As a suffix does follow vowel harmony rules.
- Mehmet'le with Mehmet
- arkadaşınla with your friend
- paltosuyla with his overcoat
- bir arabayla with a car
- Suffixed to vowels it becomes -yle -yla
- kediyle, kedi ile with the cat
- kedisiyle, kedisi ile with his cat
- iskemleyle, iskemle ile with the chair
- eli ile, eliyle with his hand
- paltosuyla, paltosu ile with his overcoat
- babayla, baba ile with father
- babasıyla, babası ile with his father
- Whether to use ile as stand alone or as a suffix is a free choice of the speaker or writer ; there is no hard and fast rule.
- FAQ (21) I thought that istemek to want did not govern a direct object, but I have seen it do so. Why is this?
- The verb istemek to want is a special case as it causes no modification of the verb it governs:
- Yazmak istiyorum. I want to write.
- Içmek isterler. They want to drink.
- Kalmak istemedin. You didn't want to stay.
- Çalışmak istemeyecekler. They will not want to work.
- This also applies in English we also cannot say I want writing or they want drinking.
- The object pointer is not required by istemek to want as the concept of "wanting.." does not affect the verb being governed in any way.
- When istemek governs anything other that a verb then the objective case must be used.
- The followıng examples show that istemek is not governing the verb kalmak directly,
- It governs "a person".
- The direct object pointer is required.
- Kalmanızı istiyoruz.
We want you to stay.
- Kalmanızı istemiyoruz.
We do not want you to stay.
- Kalmasını istemiyorlar.
They don't want him to stay.
- Kalmamalarını istemiyorum.
I don't want them not to stay.
- FAQ (22) How do I say too much, too many?
- This a common difficulty for the student of Turkish.
- The dictionary equivalent is fazla in excess or çok fazla very excess or gereğinden fazla more than is required
- Old style Turkish will say lüzumdan fazla in excess of its necessity.
- (1) "Too" meaning "very"
- In daily conversational Turkish çok very is used to convey the meaning too much, too many
- I didn't buy it, it was too expensive. the "too" is translated by çok very.
- Onu almadım, çok pahalıydı
I didn't buy it, it was too expensive.
- 2. "Too" meaning "overly, excessively"
- fazla in excess should be used where the context does not make sense by using çok very
- Baban, seninle fazla sabırlıdır.
Your father is too patient with you.
- FAQ (23) evin means your house and also of the house or the house's. How can I tell which -in suffix to use?
- This is a famous Turkish Language ambiguity.
- It must be translated in context.
- It is genitive and it possesses something else evin penceresi the window of the house
- The "something else" will have the "possessed" specifier suffixed. ev-in duvar-ı
- The wall of the house evin duvarı.
- The wall of your house becomes evinin duvarı [ev-in-in duvar-ı]
- If there is a problem with it being personalized evin your house the you can add the Personal Pronoun as well senin evin your house.
- Senin evin temiz. or Evin temiz. both mean Your house is clean.
- If the word your house needs to be further suffixed (ie.) from your house evinden then the original form is correct [senin is not required]
- FAQ (24) When forming Simple Present Tense, how do I choose the suffix from -ar -er -ir -ır -ur -ür?
- This is the only tense which shows some irregularity in formation.
- The actual tense sign is -r in the positive and -mez in the negative.
- The positive does not seem to have regularity and these 13 irregularities have to be learned.
- Simple Present irregularities
- The 13 verbs that add -ir -ır -ur -ür.
- almak to take
alırım I take
- bilmek to know
bilir he knows
- bulmak to find
bulur he finds
- durmak to stop, halt
dururuz we stop
- gelmek to come
gelirsiniz you come
- görmek to see
görürler they see
- kalmak to stay
kalırım I stay
- olmak to become
olursun you become
- ölmek to die
ölür it dies
- sanmak to suppose
sanırız we suppose
- vermek to give
verirsiniz you give
- varmak to arrive
varırlar they arrive
- vurmak to hit
vururum I hit
- FAQ (25) Please explain about -ince On doing… and -inceye kadar until…
- How to say On doing, When I do -yınca/-yince -yunca/- yünce
- bakınca on looking
bakmayınca on not looking
- arayınca on lookıng for
aramayınca on not looking for
- kesince on cutting
kesmeyince on not cutting
- çıkınca on going out
çıkmayınca on not going out
- gidince on coming
gitmeyince on not coming
- gülünce on laughing,
gülmeyince on not laughing
- görünce on seeing
görmeyince on not seeing
- The person is taken from the subject of the sentence and the tense is taken from the main verb in the sntence
- Kasap, eti kesince bıçağını düşürdü
On (while) cutting the meat the butcher dropped his knife.
- Mehmet, bana vurunca bizden kaçtı
- Mehmet escaped from us as he hit me.
- Examples in other verb moods:
- Bu işi yapamayınca, ondan vazgeçtim
On not being able to do thıs job, I gave up
- Kapı vurulunca biri/birisi hemen onu açtı.
On the door being knocked, someone immediately opened it.
- Seni görebilince çok mutluyum.
On being able to see you, I am very happy
- Seni görebilince çok mutluydum.
On being able to see you, I was very happy.
- Seni görebilince çok mutlu olacaklar.
On being able to see you,they will be very happy
- Seni görmeyince çok mutsuzdum.
On not seeing you, I was very unhappy.
- Seni göremeyince çok mutsuzdum.
On not being able to see you, I was very unhappy.
- How to Say until… -(y)inceye kadar -(y)ünceye kadar -(y)ıncaya kadar -(y)uncaya kadar
- Formation -ince + ye is in the movement toward condition [dative]
- -inceye is used with the postposition kadar amount
- - e kadar = to the amount of doing.
- Biz telefon edinceye kadar bekleyecek.
[ed-ince-ye from "etmek"]
She is going to wait until we telephone.
- Çocuk uyuyuncaya kadar yanında oturunuz.
[uyu-yunca-ya from "uyumak"]
Stay with the child until she sleeps.
- Hırsız hava kararıncaya kadar bekledi
[karar-ınca-ya from "kararmak"]
The thief waited until dark.
- Güneş çıkıncaya kadar evde kalalım.
[çık-ınca-ya from "çıkmak"]
Let's stay at home until the sun rises.
- Acıkıncaya kadar yürüyelim
[acık-ınca-ya from "acıkmak" - "to be hungry"]
Let's walk until we are hungry
- FAQ (26) Why does the last letter -ç of ağaç tree change to -c in ağacın your tree?
- This orthographic change is due to Consonant Mutation Rules.
- These are the Complete Rules of Consonant Mutation.
- 1. If the word ends in one of these Unvoiced Consonants
[p ç t k]:
- When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel this last letter of the root word changes to its voiced equivaent:
- [p → b ç → c t → d k → ğ] form:
- kitap book →
kitabı his book
- kazanç profit →
kazancı his profit
- kilit lock →
kilidi his lock
- köpek dog →
köpeğiniz Your dog
- 2. If the word ends in an Unvoiced Consonant
[p ç t k f h s ş]:
- When adding a suffix beginning with a consonant then the suffix consonant changes to its unvoiced Form [d → t]:
- kilit lock →
kilitte in the lock
- köpek dog →
köpekten from the dog
- sabah morning →
sabahtan from the morning
- giriş exit →
girişte at the exit
- FAQ (27) How do I say I know in Turkish?
- The two words meaning to know how to… or to know someone… in Turkish:
- bilmek to know how to.…
yüzme biliyorum. I know how to swim.
- tanımak to know somebody
Ali, beni tanıyor. Ali knows me.
- There can be some differing ways to say the same thing in Turkish for instance:
- Do you know how to play football?
- To ask Exactly?
Futbol oyamasını biliyor musun?
Do you play football?
- Or to ask Particular?
Futbol oynamayı biliyor musun?
Do you know how to play football?
- Or to ask Generally speaking?
Futbol oynama biliyor musun?
Do you know about football playing?
- FAQ (28) Why has çalışamayan got the -a- after the -ş?
- This the Negative Potential
"cannot"mood verb sign as a SUBJECT PARTICIPLE.
- This mood formed in all tenses just by inserting an -e- or -a- before the negative suffix of any negative verb whether it be active, passive, reflexive, reciprocal,or causative.
[a completely new verb is formed with its own infinitive.]
- The Positive Potential
çalışmak = to work →
çalışabilmek = to be able to work→
Hence: çalışabilen =→
who is able to work/who can work
- The Negative Potential
çalışmamak = not to work. →
çalışamamak = not to be able to work
Hence: çalışamayan →
who is unable to work/who can not work.
- The -ama- -eme- suffix makes a Negative Potential.
- It is called a Subject Participle because it DESCRIBES the Subject.
- As a participle it is a VERBAL ADJECTIVE (same thing)
- It PRECEDES or REPLACES the noun which it DESCRIBES.
- All Participles are adjectives.
- They must always have a noun following to describe.
- Recognized by their position in a sentence
- Do not mix them up withe verbs.
- A Verb is always the last word in that sentence.
- As a SUBJECT DESCRIBING ADJECTIVE:
Bir çalışamayan adam. →
A man who is unable to work.
- As a NOUN REPLACEMENT:
One who is unable to work.
- FAQ (29) Dünyalarından translates from their world. Shouldn't this be "from their worlds" (plural) ?
- The suffix for his is
Singular Person: dünyası (dünya-sı) his world
Plural Person: dünyaları (dünya-lar-ı) his worlds
- The suffix for their is
dünyaları [dünya-ları] becomes both sıngular or plural their world OR their worlds
dünyalarlarıis wrong because the -lar suffix cannot be re-duplicated.
- It seems that "their worlds" should be
dünyalar-larıbut suffixes ending in
-larare never doubled.
- The context should make the singularity or plurality of the noun in question clear.
- If it is necessary to be explicit in the meaning, then the Personal Pronouns are used:
- dünyası becomes onun dünyası his world for singular.
dünyaları becomes onun dünyaları his worlds for plural
- dünyaları their world/their worlds becomes onların dünyası their world for singular.
onların dünyaları their worlds for plural.
- So the question example can be made explicit:
- Dünyalarından = onların dünyasından from their world
AND onların dünyalarından from their worlds
OR onun dünyalarından from his worlds