LEARN TURKISH: THE TURKISH ALPHABET

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Subject: Learn Turkish, Turkish lessons, Türkisch lernen, THE TURKISH ALPHABET

TÜRKÇE ALFABE, THE TURKİSH ALPHABET


TÜRKÇE ALFABE | Türk alfabesi, 1 Kasım 1928 tarihinde 1353 sayılı kanunla kabul edilmiştir.

Türk alfabesinde 29 harf vardır. Bunlardan 8'i ünlü, 21'i ünsüz harftir.

History of the Turkish Alphabet

Soon after the Turkish Republic was declared Law No:1353 dated 1st November 1928 changed the alphabet to Roman letters from the previous Ottoman arabic script.

The Ottoman script was did not adequately cover the phonetics of Turkish.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introduced the new Latin alphabet overnight.

It includes some special letters:.

ğğ ĞĞ çç CC ıı II ii İİ öö ÖÖ ŞŞ şş üü ÜÜ

The Turkish Alphabet

A B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N O Ö P R S Ş T U Ü V Y Z

  • Turkish does not allow two vowels to occur together,
  • There are exceptions, but mostly in foreign imported words.
  • Whenever two vowels occur together they are each pronounced as a separate sound.
  • The letter -Y- is considered as a consonant in Turkish.
  • It is used as a buffer consonant to keep vowels apart during word building.
  • The Turkish alphabet is phonetic.
  • Each letter retains its individual pronunciation at all times.
  • The Turkish Alphabet consists of 21 consonants and 8 vowels.
  • There are no diphthongs except in a few foreign loan words.

The letters W, X, Q do not appear in the Turkish Alphabet.
Example: English "Taxi" = "Taksi" in Turkish.

Letters included in the Turkish alphabet are:

  • ı I (UnDotted I)
  • iİ (Dotted İ)
  • ç Ç (C-cedilla)
  • ş Ş (S-cedilla)
  • ö Ö (Ö-dieresis)
  • ü Ü(Ü-dieresis)
  • The letter g G also has a soft form ğ Ğ

[as in English "fight, weight, sought"]

There are six pairs of two similar but different letters. There is a difference in the pronunciation of each letter.

C - Ç   G - Ğ   I - İ   O - Ö   S - Ş   U - Ü

Pronunciation Differences between Turkish and English

Turkish Vowel Pronunciation

The Eight Vowels are divided into two groups for Vowel Harmony purposes.

The A-UnDotted Vowel Group

A pronounced as U in English lucky or mutter.

 A - yasak adam ada

I - UnDotted I pronounced as ER sound in porter or water
[without any r sound]

 I - ılık ısırgan ışık

O pronounced as the O sound in lottery or bottom.

O -  on oda orta

U pronounced as the OO sound in loot or boot

U - uzun upuzun numara

The E- Dotted Vowel Group

E pronounced is as E in letter or set or met

E -  evet ben teyze

İ - Dotted İ pronounced is as EE in meet or EA in seat.

İ - bir ismim iyilik

Ö pronounced is as IR in bird or shirt without any r sound.

Ö - dört ördek özel

Ü pronounced as EW sound few or stew

Ü - üzüm ünlü ümit

Turkish Consonant Pronunciation

These Consonants differ from English Pronunciation:

C pronounced as J sound as in jam jar.

C -  cep cacık cimri

Ç pronounced as CH sound as in church

Ç - çekiç uç çiçek

G is always hard as in gate. It is never soft as in general.

hard G - gemeral gaga gıtmek

Ğ (soft G) lengthens the preceding vowel. It has no sound and never begins a word.

Ğ - ağa dağ iğne

The Turkish soft ğ can be likened to the silent GH sound in the English words such as weight, light, fought.

Turkish Ğ - soğuk eğer öğle

H is always aspirated as in Henry. It is never silent as in Heir

H lahana hemen sabah

J pronounced as the French jolie and in English cloSUre, pleaSUre

J müjde jale japon

R is always strongly rolled even on the end of words.

R arabalar geri yarar

S is always hissed as in safe. It is never a z sound as in "these" or "those".

S sıcak masa ulus

Ş is the SH sound as in sharp or bash.

Ş şerefe şimşek başka

Let us spell English "Ashchurch" = "Aşçöç" in Turkish. and English "Churchill" = "Çöçil" in Turkish

ÜNLÜ (SESLİ) HARFLER:

A, E, I, İ, O, Ö, U, Ü

  • Kalın Ünlüler: a-ı-o-u
  • İnce Ünlüler: e-i-ö-ü

ÜNSÜZ (SESSİZ) HARFLER:

B, C, Ç, D, F, G, Ğ, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, R, S, Ş, T, V, Y, Z

  • Sert Ünsüzler: p, ç, t, k, s, ş, h, f
  • Yumuşak Ünsüzler: b, c, d, g, ğ, j, l, m, n, r, v, y, z

Büyük Harf Küçük Harf Okunuşu Örnek Kelimeler
A a 'a' : araba
B b 'be' : balık
C c 'ce' : cam
Ç ç 'çe' : çanta
D d 'de' : dede
E e 'e' : ekmek
F f 'fe' : fil
G g 'ge' : göz
Ğ ğ “yumuşak ge” ağaç
H h 'he' : horoz
I ı 'ı' : ışık
İ i 'i' : inek
J j 'je' : jeton
K k 'ke' : kalem
L l 'le' : limon
M m 'me' : masa
N n 'ne' : nokta
O o 'o' : okul
Ö ö 'ö' : ördek
P p 'pe' : para
R r 're' : radyo
S s 'se' : süt
Ş ş 'şe' : şişe
T t 'te' : telefon
U u 'u' : uçak
Ü ü 'ü' : ütü
V v 've' : vazo
Y y 'ye' : yılan
Z z 'ze' : zil


 

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