The Subject Definite Article 'the' in Turkish

The Subject Definite Article 'the' in Turkish


The Subject Definite Article "the" in Turkish






The Subject Definite Article "the" in Turkish

There is no Turkish word for the subject definite article, only the context tells us when to insert "the" in English:

Çay pahalı.
Tea is expensive.
Çay soğuk.
The tea is cold.
Araba caddede.
The car is in the road.

The Subject Definite Article "the" does not exist as a word in Turkish.

Subjects are understood as being "specific".

The Object Definite Article is suffixed with ‑i ‑ı ‑u ‑ü"the"[accusative]

Mehmet telsizi [telsiz-i] tamir etti.
Mehmet mended"the"radio



Turkish Direct Object Suffix "the"


The Turkish Direct Object Suffix which makes the object substantive,

It is one of the most difficult hurdles for English speakers to surmount when speaking, reading and understanding the Turkish language.



Turkish Direct Object Suffix for "the"


The suffix ‑i ‑ı ‑u ‑ü used with bare nouns which end in a consonant.

‑yi ‑yı ‑yu ‑yü used with bare nouns which end in a vowel.

‑in ‑nı ‑nu ‑nü used with extended [already suffixed] nouns ending in a vowel.

In English "the" makes both subject and object specific,

Adam kapıyı
[kapı-]kapattı.

The[subject substantive]man closedthe[object substantive]door.



Turkish grammar does not use classical grammar nomenclature.

The subject definite article "the" does not exist in Turkish.

There is no ""the" man" as the subject definite article.

"the" is already understood as substantive and does not need a definite article.

There is an object definite article "the" in Turkish.



Noun ending in a consonant: kilitlock



  • Adam kilidi[kilid-i]kapattı
    The man locked THE LOCK

  • The -i suffix modifies the bare noun kilit to kilidiTHE LOCK substantive as a direct object.




Extended noun ending in a consonant: kilidim[kilit+im]my lock



  • Adam kilidimi[kilid-im-i]kapattı
    The man locked MY LOCK

  • The -i suffix makes the alrady extended noun kilid-im-iMY LOCK substantive as a direct object.




Bare bouns ending in vowel: kapıdoor



  • Adam kapıyı[kapı-yı]kapattı
    The man closed THE DOOR

  • The -yı suffix makes the bare noun kapıTHE DOOR substantive as a direct object




Extended noun ending in a vowel: kapısı[kapı+sı]his door



  • Adam kapısını[kapı-sı-nı]kapattı
    The man closed HIS DOOR

  • The -nı suffix makes the extended noun kapısı-nıHIS DOOR substantive as a direct object





  • Summary: Turkish Object Definite Article Rules

  • A Turkish verb needs the object pointer:
    ‑(y)i ‑(y)ı ‑(y)ü ‑(y)u
    [buffer -y- after vowels.]

  • ‑ni ‑nı ‑nü ‑nu
    [buffer -n- after vowels for already suffixed nouns.]




Turkish Object Pointer Examples


Direct Object pointer: -y-i for simple nouns.
Arabayı boyuyorum.
[araba-y-ı]
I am painting the car.

Possessive Pronoun: -s-ıhis plus direct object pointer -nı for extended nouns.
Arabasını boyuyorum.
[araba-s-ı-n-ı]
I am painting his car
[the his car]

Possessive pronoun -larıtheir plus object pointer -nı for extended nouns.
Arabalarını boyuyoruz.
[araba-ları-n-ı]
We are painting their car.
[the their car]

Possessive Pronoun -sıhis plus direct object pointer -nı for extended nouns
Arabasını boyuyor musunuz?
[araba-s-ı-n-ı]
Are you painting his car?

Possessive Pronoun -ınızyour plus direct object pointer  for extended nouns.
Mehmet, arabanızı boyamıyor mu?
[araba-nız-ı]
Isn't Mehmet painting your car?

Possessive Pronoun -sihis plus direct object pointer -ni for extended nouns.
Kedisini aramıyor muyum?
[kedi-s-i-n-i]
Aren't I looking for his cat?

Direct Object Pointer -i for personal pronouns
Beni istiyor musun?[ben -i]Do you want me?

Direct Object Pointer -i for personal pronouns
Seni istemiyor muyum?
[sen -i]
Don't I want you?



The Singular Turkish Indefinite Article - bira, an, one



  • bir kapıa gate

  • bir elma an apple

  • bir bardakone glass


Caddede bir (tek) araba var.
There is a (single) car in the road



Turkish Positive Plural Indefinite Article birkaçsome


In English the Article "some" is only used in Positive Statements.

"any" is used in Negative Statements and also both in Positive and Negative Questions.

Both some and any are translated as bazı.

bazıalways governs a plural noun:
bazı masalar → some tables




  • Positive statements use:
    some in English:

  • Bahçede birkaç kapı var.
    There are some gates in the garden.

  • Bahçede birkaç kedi var.
    There are some cats in the garden.

  • Caddede birkaç araba var.
    There are some cars in the road.





The Negative Singular Article is
hiçbirnot one OR hiçnot any

  • Negative Statements use:
    any[usually with the plural] in English.

  • Bahçede hiç kapı yok.
    There aren't any gates in the garden.

  • Bahçede hiçbir kapı yok.
    There is not a (single) gate in the garden at all.

  • Bahçede hiç kedi yok.
    There aren't any cats in the garden.

  • Bahçede hiçbir kedi yok.
    There is not a (single) cat in the garden.

  • Caddede hiçbir araba yok.
    There aren't any cars in the road.

  • Caddede hiçbir araba yok.
    There is not a car in the road [at all.]





  • Both Positive and Negative Questions usea (single)? at all? in English.

  • Bahçede hiçbir kapı yok mu?
    Isn't there a (single) gate in the garden?

  • Bahçede bir kedi var mı?
    Is there there a cat in the garden?

  • Caddede hiçbir araba yok mu?
    Isn't there a car in the road at all?

  • Caddede bir araba var mı?
    Is there a car in the road?





  • The Negative Plural Indefinite Article is:hiçany, none at all
    Negative Statements use any in English:

  • Bahçede hiç kapı yok.
    There are not any gates in the garden.

  • Bahçede hiç kedi yok.
    There are not any cats in the garden.

  • Caddede hiç araba yok.
    There are not any cars in the road.





  • Both Positive and Negative Questions useany in English.

  • Bahçede hiç kapı yok mu?
    Aren't there any gates in the garden?

  • Bahçede birkaç kedi var mı?
    Are there any cats in the garden?

  • Caddede hiç araba yok mu?
    Aren't there any cars in the road?

  • Caddede birkaç araba var mı?
    Are there any cars in the road?





  • birkaçsome and hiçnot any always take a singular noun in Turkish.

  • The meaning is plural in both Turkish and English:

  • birkaç kadınsome ladies

  • hiç evnot any houses





  • hiçbirnot a single one is used for the singular both in Turkish and English:

  • Caddede hiçbir araba yok.
    There is not a car in the road?




Hiç meaning ever or never



  • In normal verbal positive questionshiç translates as "ever"

  • Hiç Alanya'ya gittiniz mi?
    Have you ever been to Alanya?

  • In normal verbal negative questions hiç translates as "never"

  • Hiç Alanya'ya gitmediniz mi?
    Have you never been to Alanya?





  • Other Indefinites are:

  • bazısome

  • Caddedeki bazı arabalar vardı, şimdi artık hiç yok.
    There were some cars in the road, now there are none.

  • To reiterate:bazısomealways takes the plural:

  • bazı kadınlarsome ladies

  • bazı evlersome houses





  • birçoka lot of or many

  • caddede birçok araba var
    there are a lot of cars on the road.

  • caddede birçok araba var
    there are many cars on the road.

  • biraz
    a little, a small amount →
    Biraz şeker, lütfen.
    A little sugar, please.




Turkish Lack of Gender


Generally Turkish has no gender.

There is only one form of the noun:

No masculine actor and feminine actress

When gender distinction is necessary within the context:

Turkish uses simple locutions:

  • kızgirl or kadınlady can be placed in front of the noun to show human femininity:

  • terzitailor →
    kadın terzitailoress

  • arkadaşfriend →
    kız arkadaşgirl friend

  • dişifemale isused before nouns to show a female animal:

  • köpekdog 
    dişi köpekbitch

  • erkekmale is used to show maleness:

  • kardeşsibling →
    erkek kardeşbrother

  • kızgirl / maiden is used to show femininity:

  • kardeşsister / brother →
    kız kardeşsister


This method is used whenever it is necessary to differentiate between the sexes.



Turkish Family Relationships


There is no gender distinction in Turkish.

This does not apply to close family relationships.

Many relations on the mother's side will have a different word than the father's side:

Just two examples here but they are myriad!

  • amcauncle
    [father's brother] →
    dayıuncle
    [mother's brother]

  • teyzeaunt
    [mother's sister] →
    halaaunt
    [father's sister]



































































































































































Turkish Family Relations
father baba
mother anne
baby bebek
brother erkek kardeş
sister kız kardeş
elder brother abi (ağabey)
elder brother's wife yenge
elder sister abla
elder sister's husband enişte
son oğul, erkek çocuk
daughter kız, kız çocuk
aunt (mother's side) teyze
aunt (father's side) hala
grandfather dede, büyükbaba
grandmother nine, büyükanne
grandmother (mother's side) anneanne
grandmother (father's side) babaanne
nephew, niece yeğen
uncle (father's side) amca
uncle (mother's side) dayı
cousin kuzen
father-in-law kayınbaba, kayınpeder
mother-in-law kaynana, kayınvalide
sister-in-law (of a male) baldız
sister-in-law (of a female) görümce
brother-in-law kayınbirader
brother-in-law's wife of a female elti
sister-in-law's husband of a male bacanak
son-in-law ; bridegroom damat
daughter-in-law ; bride gelin
sister's husband enişte
grandson ; granddaughter torun
twin ikiz
twin brother, twin sister ikiz kardeş
wife eş, hanım, karı
husband koca
step mother üvey anne
step father üvey baba


Güncelleme Tarihi: 21 Mart 2018, 10:57
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