Turkish Auxiliary Verbs

Turkish Auxiliary Verbs

Turkish Auxiliary Verbs

There are two main auxiliary verbs in Turkish:

(1) etmekto do, to make, to perform

etmek is used to make Active Tenses.

  • Babamı mutlu ettimI made my father happy.

  • Dört üç daha yedi eder.Four plus three makes seven

  • Toplam sekiz dolar ediyor.The total amounts to 8 dollars

(2) olmakto be, to become to happen to occur.

olmak is used to make Passive Tenses.

  • Seni görünce mutlu oldum.I became happy on seeing you.

etmekto do/to perform

etmek is not usually used alone as a verb.

etmek is used with many Arabic and Persian words to form verbs where none exist in modern Turkish:

teşekkür[arb.]a thanking →
teşekkür etmek
to thank somebody

teşekkür ederim
I thank you

Many Arabic words do not follow the rules of vowel harmony within themselves

However, any Turkish suffixes added will always be governed by the final vowel in the word.

Sometimes in Turkish there are two words in general use for the same meaning.

The old Ottoman Arabic using etmek to form its verb: →
tamir etmek[arb.]
to repair

The New Turkish rooted word will follow normal Turkisk rules of conjugation: →
to repair

Both words are in daily use.

Turkish Verbs with auxiliary etmek
etmek to do / perform / make / act
acele etmek to hurry
affetmek to pardon
akıl etmek to think of / contrive
alay etmek to make fun of
alış veriş etmek to shop
arzu etmek to want / desire
bahane etmek to pretend / make excuse
bahse girmek to bet / wager
belli etmek to reveal / show
cesaret etmek to dare to
davet etmek to invite
devam etmek to continue
endişe etmek to worry / be anxious
farketmek to notice / realize
halletmek to solve / settle up
hareket etmek to move off / pull out (car)
hasretmek (-e) to confine (to) / limit
hissetmek to feel / sense
hitap etmek to make a speech
ısrar etmek to insist / persist
icabetmek to comply / acccept as
icap etmek to be necessary
idare etmek to manage / administer
ihmal etmek to neglect
iki lâf etmek to chat about nothing
ikna etmek to persuade / convince
ikram etmek to offer hospitality
intibak etmek to adapt (to)
itham etmek to accuse
itiraz etmek to object / disapprove
istirahat etmek to relax
iyi etmek to make good
izah etmek to explain
kabul etmek to approve / settle for
kastetmek to imply / mean
kavga etmek to quarrel / fall out with
kaybetmek to lose
laf/lâf etmek to gossip / chat
merak etmek to wonder
mutlu etmek to make sb. happy
münakaşa etmek to quarrrel / row
müracaat etmek to appeal / re-apply
müsaade etmek to permit / allow
nakletmek to transport / transfer
nankörlük etmek to show ingratitude
nefret etmek (-dan) to hate
perişan etmek to dismay sb. / to bungle so.
rahat etmek to make comfortable
rahatsız etmek to disturb / upset
rica etmek to request
sabretmek to be patient
seyretmek to watch
söz etmek to promise
şikâyet etmek to complain
tahammül etmek to put up with / endure
tahmin etmek to guess / surmise
tarif etmek to describe / define
tasnif etmek to classify
tebrik etmek to congratulate
teklif etmek to propose / suggest
telefon etmek to call on the telephone
tembih etmek to reccommend
tenkit etmek to criticise
terketmek to abandon / leave
tereddüt etmek to hesitate
teselli etmek to console
teşekkür etmek to thenk
vefatetmek to pass away (die)
yaramazlık etmek to be naughty / act up
yardım etmek (-a) to help
yok etmek to get rid of
yolcu etmek to see a traveller off
zahmet etmek to touble sb.
zannetmek to suppose

etmek is directly joined to single syllable word stems otherwise it is written separately.

etmek being a verb in its own right does undergo vowel harmony when suffixed to other words.

etmek is also used to make verbs from nouns of foreign import into Turkish:

  • izole etmekto isolate, to insulate

  • Fişi izole ettim.I isolated the plug.

  • dans etmek to dance

  • telefon etmekto telephone

  • park etmekto park

Single Syllable Verb Roots with etmek

If verbs are formed with a single syllable root then etmek is affixed directly to that root

If the word ends in a consonant will generally double that consonant.

  • afpardon[Arb.]

  • The arabic root takes a doubled "-ff" when adding a verb form:
    affetmekto beg pardon

  • reta refusal[Arb.]

  • Takes a doubled "-dd" when adding a verb form.
    reddetmekto refuse
    reddederim!I refuse!

These single syllable verbs can be written separately:

There in doubling of the final consonant.

  • red etmek → red ederim

  • af etmek → af ederim

etmek as a verb of completion

etmek is used like an auxiliary verb in English:

  • English Question:

  • Are you coming to the party tonight?

  • English Answer:

  • Yes I am.

  • The English short answer includes only I am without the verb coming.

  • Turkish Question:

  • Bu aksamki partiye geliyor musun?

  • Turkish Answer:

  • Evet geliyorum. Turkish has to include the geliyorum verb.

  • English:

  • Did you accept this after all? - Yes I did.

  • The short answer in English is I did without the verb accept

  • Turkish:

  • Herşeye rağmen kabul ettin mi onu?Evet ettim.

  • The short answer in Turkish is ettim without kabul.

etmek is used like an auxiliary.

Turkish Transitive Verbs formed with etmek

  • Onun için Mehmet bana ayıp etti.
    Because of it/that Mehmet shamed me.

  • Mektubu teslim ettim.I delivered the letter.

  • Koliyi teslim ettirdiniz.you had the the parcel delivered.

  • Onu tamir edebilsek.If we can repair it/that.

  • Onu tamir edemem.I can't repair it/that.

  • Onu kontrol ettiler.They checked it/that.

  • Onu kontrol edebilir misiniz?Would you check it/that?

  • Onu reddedeceğiz.We shall refuse it/that.

  • Onu reddedelim.Let's refuse it/that.

  • Ahmet, onu takdir etti.Ahmet appreciated it/that.

  • Ali, onu takdir edememiş.Ali couldn't have appreciated it/that

Passive of etmek becomes edilmek

The passive mood is discussed in detail on "passive.htm" web page.

The passive can be formed with edilmek, the passive of etmek

  • Mektup teslim edildi.
    The letter has been delivered.

  • Yarın arabanız tamir edilecek.
    Your car will be repaired tomorrow.

  • O kontrol edildi.
    It has been checked.

  • Onu kontrol edilebilcek mi?
    Can it be repaired?

  • Ali, takdir edilecek.
    Ali will be appreciated.

Turkish auxiliary verb olmakto be / become

It is used as an auxiliary with foreign loan words.

It attaches directly to single syllable roots.

It is written separately when used with a multi-syllable verb.

Being verb in its own right it does not obey Vowel Harmony.

It is used as an auxilary with the future tense and potential mood of the verb to be

  • HazırımI am ready.

  • Hazır olacağım.I shall be ready.

  • Zenginsiniz.You are rich.

  • Zengin olsaydınız.If you had been rich.

  • O yoksul.he is poor.

  • O yoksul olabilir.He may be poor.

The past of olmak gives the sense of "being in a state of"

  • Pişman oldum.I regret/I was sorry.

  • Memnun oldum.I'm pleased.

Other Turkish Auxiliary Verbs

  • yapmakto do as an action

  • gelmekto come

  • kalmakto remain / stay

  • bulunmakto be found / to be[Passive of "bulmak"]

  • demekto say

  • dilemekto wish

  • söylemekto speak

  • durmakto stop

eylemekto carry out[equates with etmek but not common.]

eylemek can be used as a substitute for etmek and serves the same purpose.

It is usually restricted to the written word and is seldom used in conversation.

Auxiliary Verb: -ayazmak "almost to"

yazmakto write used as an auxiliary: →
[means "almost to.." ]

  • Düşüyazdım!
    I almost fell down!

Turkish Continuative Verbs

  • -akalmak "continue, keep on doing"

  • -adurmak "continue, keep on doing:

Only the first vowel follows the vowel harmony rules.

Hence "-ekalmak -adurmak -eyazmak -ıvermek -uvermek -üvermek etc".

As these are verbs in their own right they retain their spelling.

This is similar to the Potential Verb Suffix "-abilmek / -ebilmek"

kalmak and durmak are used to form a continuing action of the main verb.

They give the sense "to keep on doing" or to "remain in a condition of."

To form the continuative verb the infinitive of kalmak or durmak is added directly to the "Wish & Desire" root of the main verb.

The "Wish & Desire" root is formed by suffixing -e or -a to the basic verb stem:

yüzmek to swim → yüze- "Wish & Desire" stem.

Examples of the direct addition of kalmakto remain:

  • yüzekalmak
    to keep on swimming

  • Yüzekaldı.
    He kept on swimming.

  • alakalmak
    to keep on taking

  • Alakalacağım.
    I will keep on taking.

  • durakalmak
    to keep on stopping

  • Durakalıyorsun.
    You're keeping on stopping.

  • bekleyedurmak
    to keep on waiting

  • Bekleyedurabilecek misiniz?
    Will you be able to keep on waiting?

  • uyuyakalmak
    to oversleep

  • Uyuyakaldım!
    I overlept.

  • kalakalmak
    to stand aghast, to be astounded

  • Kalakaldım!
    I was astounded

  • donakalmak
    to petrify

  • Donakaldım!
    I was petrified!, I was scared stiff!

Turkish Accelerative Verb

The Auxiliary verb vermekto give gives a sense of urgency and speed of action to the main verb.

It loses its meaning to give.

The direct addition of vermek means to "get a move on…"

  • Çarşıyaya koşuver!Run quickly to the shops!

The "Wish & Desire" mood sign -(y)a/-(y)e is added to the basic verb stem:

The -a / -e suffix abrades to -i -ı -ü -u according to vowel harmony rules.

koşakoşa run abrades to koşuvermek

  • güle → gülüveringive a laugh!

  • kese → kesiverinCut it!, shut up![idiom]

  • baka → bakıverinLook now! Look out!

  • tuta → tutuverinGrab it! Snatch it!

  • koşmakto run →
    koşuvermekto hurry up and run

  • yazmakto write →
    yazıvermekto scribble / scrawl

  • Koşuverin!Hurry up and run![imperative]

  • İçkisini içiverdi.He gulped his drink down.

  • Gelivereceğim!I'll dash along and come!

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