Sumerian Lexicon, Sümerce Sözlük

Sumerian Lexicon, Sümerce Sözlük

Sumerian Lexicon, Sümerce Sözlük

Sumerian Lexicon ( Sümerce Sözlük)

Sumerian Lexicon ( Sümerce Sözlük)

a, `à water, fluid; semen, seed; offspring, child; father; watercourse (cf. e)

a Ah! (an interjection) (Attinger, Eléments p. 414)

a-a (aya) father

a-a-ugu(4) father who has begotten, one's own true father, progenitor

a-ab-ba, a-aba (water of the) sea (cf. ab)

a-ab-ba igi-nim Upper Sea, the Mediterranean

a-ab-ba sig Lower Sea, the Persian Gulf

    1. h (or aah) (Gudea) → uh

    1. a(-a) who, whoever, whom, whose (interrogative and relative)

a - bal to pour out water, libate, irrigate

a-bul5-la abul

a-da rivalry, contention, contest, fight (Civil, AuOr 5 (1987) 18 + n. 6; Klein, AV Cagni 568 n. 29))

a-da-ab (an OB hymn rubric, a hymn of praise consisting minimally of sagida, saĝara and urubi sections)

a-da-al, a-da-lam now; current, present

a-da-man/mìn contest between two parties, (verbal) duel, disputation

a-da-man - a5/du11 to hold a contest; to dispute, debate (Attinger, Eléments 417-422)

a - dé to pour out water; to libate; to freshen (with water); to flood, be flooded (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 68f., 99)

    1. u10 fresh water, sweet water

a - du11 to water, irrigate, flood (Attinger, Eléments 477-484)

a-è-a sudden onrush of water, damburst, flood wave

 

kušA.EDIN.LÁ kusummu3

a-EN-da a-ru12-da

a-e štubku6 "carp flood," early(?) flood (Civil, AuOr 15, 52)

a-ga, a-ba back, rear (of a building), hind quarters; after; cf. a-ga-ni-šè after him

a-ga-am, a-ga-àm (etc.) artificial pond or lake for controlling flood waters (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 130f.); (an occupation, OS)

a-ga(-aš)-gi4, (OS àga-gi4) later, (the one) after (Civil, JNES 43, 286 n. 12; Selz, FAOS 15/1 No. 21 vii 1); cf.

àga-gi4-a-bé later, afterwards

a-gù A.KA

a-gàr, a-gar agricultural tract, area of field parcels, irrigation district

a-gar5, a-gàr, a-bár lead (the metal) (Reiter, AOAT 249, 119ff.)

a-gin7 how

a-gúb-ba lustration water, holy water

kuša-ĝá-lá leather sack

a - ĝar to flood with water; to soak, rinse

a-ĝi6(-a) flood, flood wave

A.KA ugu, úgu

    1. A-a - ĝar  úgu-a - ĝar

a-la(-la) ululation, expression of joy

a-la la-la

a-lá (a demon)

    1. ù-a roiled, disturbed, cloudy, muddy water

    1. UM udu-aslumx

    1. a-ru(-k), a-má/mar-ru10/uru5(-k) devastating flood; the mythical Deluge (see mar-uru5)

a-ma-ru-kam It is urgent! Without fail! (lit. It is like water of the tempest!)

    1. ah high water, flood, inundation

    1. a(-àm) what, whatever (interrogative and relative)

a-na-aš(-àm), a-na-šè(-àm) why

a-na-gin7 how, why; thus, so

a-naĝ libation; drinking water

a-ne he, she, this one (OS for e-ne) a-níĝin pond, puddle, standing water a-nir lament; grief (Emesal a-še-er)

da-nun-na(-k) (a grouping of high gods)

a-pa4 gutter, pipe; (as beer and water libation pipe, see Civil, AuOr 5, 33)

a-ra-li (poetic term for the netherworld; the desert between Bad-Tibira and Uruk where Dumuzi pastured his flocks and was killed, see Jacobsen, JAOS 103, 194)

a-ra-zu, a-rá-zu, rá-zu prayer, supplication (for writings see Bauer, AV Klein 24-25)

a-rá way, path, course; state, condition; multiplied by, "times" (math.) ; a-rá N-kam for the nth time

a - ri, a - ru to inseminate, engender, beget

a-ri-a, `à-ri-a wasteland, desert (Civil, AuOr 5, 33)

a - ru to dedicate, donate to a deity

a-ru-a temple donation, votive gift

    1. u12(EN)-da (Pre-Sarg. and Sarg.) copper (variant of

→ urudu)

    1. ig, a-si(-ig)-ga, a-sa-ga clear, clean water (mû zakûtu) (syllabic for sig5 and sa6(g), see Bauer, AfO 40/41, 95)
 
    1. is salty, brackish water

a - sur to pass urine, urinate

a-šà(g), aša5(g)(GÁNA) field, parcel (for OS aša5 see Civil, JCS 25, 171f.; Powell, JCS 25, 178-184)

a šà-ga šu - du11 to inseminate, engender (later elliptically just šu - du11)

a-še-er a-nir A.TIR eša

a - tu5, (OS) a - tu17(A.TU5) to bathe, wash

    1. u5-a bath, bathing ritual

a-zu, a-su physician

á, ax(DA) arm, wing; branch; side (cf. da); (knife) edge; strength, force; work-force; work-period/unit (measured in days); wage(s), hire, fee, payment, expenditure (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 81-84); point in time; horns, antlers (for ax see Attinger, ZA 87, 112)

á - áĝ to command, give orders or instructions to someone (-da-) regarding (-ši-)

á-áĝ-ĝá instruction, order; news (Attinger, ZA 87, 115)

á-an handle(?) (Attinger, ZA 87, 115f.)

á-an(-zú-lum) date palm spadix; broom

á-an-kára, an-kára, en-kára (a divine or royal weapon or staff) (Attinger, ZA 87, 182: áan-kára)

á-áš → áš

á - bad to open, spread the arms, wings

á-bad opened, outstretched arms, wings

á - dah to help (PSD and ePSD now read tah) á-dah help, aid; helper

á-dam settlement, habitation

á - dar to seize illegally, confiscate

á-dàra horns of wild goats, deer antlers (Steinkeller, BSA 63 n. 24) (see dàra)

á - dúb to flap the wings; periphrastic: á-dúb - a5 á - è to rear, bring up, take care of

á-gú-zi-ga early morning, dawn

á-gùb-bu left arm, side; to the left, on the left á-ĝál mighty, powerful, strong (cf. á-nun-ĝál) á - ĝar to apply force, overpower

á-ĝi6-ba(-a) at midnight

á-ki-ti (a festival and the temple where it takes place)

á - kúš to tire (the arms) (Attinger, ZA 87, 112)

á-kúš(-ù) adj. tired; n. tiredness; work, labor, toil; ppl.

á-nu-kúš untiring

á - lá to tie the hands, fetter

kušá-lá (a kind of drum)

á-mè(-k) arm of battle (describing a weapon, poetic)

á-nun(-ĝál) having great power, (most) powerful (cf.

á-ĝál)

á-nam-ur-saĝ heroic arm/strength/weapon (poetic)

á-sàg (a demon); (a source of sickness or death) (>

asakku)

(kuš)á-si (leather) strap; uruduá-si copper hinge (Van de Mieroop, Crafts 134; Civil, Iraq 23, 162)

á-sìg slingstone

á - sù(dr) to extend the arm(s), spread the wings; to proceed, march on; to sail

á-še, á-šè now (anumma); not yet (lāman)

á-ŠEmušen swan(?) (Landsberger, MSL 8/2 130)

 

á-šita4(U.KID)(-a) paraphanelia, implements (Civil, JAOS 88 (1968) 7)

á-šu-ĝìr limbs (lit. "arms, hands, and feet")

á - tuku to have strength, power

á-tuku powerful, strong, able-bodied

á-u4-te-na (at) twilight, (in the) evening (coolness)

á-u4-zal-le daybreak, morning

á-zi-da right arm, side

á-zi(g) high-handed action, violence

á-zi-šè by a violent act, by force

a5(k) (ak) to do, perform, exercise, act (often as an auxiliary verb); to make, construct; to make like, make into. Certain contexts require rdg. aka or . It can be combined with a pronoun in forms such as hé-na, ì-na, see AV Wilcke 226. For rdg. ša5 perhaps = ša4 = the aux. verb *za see Cavigneaux, ASJ 9, 49ff.; Urnamma Hymn B 52 has an Ur III (?) var. ša-ša for OB AK- AK. For a comprehensive treatment see Attinger, ZA 95, 46-64, 208-275; Powell, AV Diakonoff 314-319. The OB signlist Proto-Ea 524-8 lists the values a5, nà, ša5, kè, and aka for the AK sign.

ab hole, opening, window, roof vent

ab, ab-ba, a-ab-ba, a-aba sea

ab-ba, ábba(ABxÁŠ) old man, elder, wise man; father; witness

ab-ba-ab-ba grandfather

ab-làl window, opening, pigeon hole

áb cow

áb-za-za (an exotic animal: water buffalo(?), zebu(?)) abgal (apkal) (a cultic profession); (mythical) sage abrig(NUN.ME.DU) (a cultic profession) (abriqqu) àbsin, ab-sín furrow

abul(la), a-bul5-la city gate, main gate/entrance

abzu (mythological underground fresh water ocean, home of the god Enki); (a water-basin shrine in many Mesopotamian temples)

(giš)ad beam, plank; raft (so PDS A/3 6, though Bauer, AfO 40/41, 94 disagrees; see discussion of Marchesi, Or 68, 105-108, also Attinger, ZA 95, 260)

ad, ad-da father; forefather, great great-grandfather (so PSD)

ad sound; voice, cry

ad - gi4 to advise, take counsel with (-da-), consult; to discuss; to echo, respond

ad-gi4(-gi4) advice, counsel; advisor, counselor

ad-KID reed craftsman, basket and mat weaver (The reading ad-kub4 cannot be justified. Steinkeller, Sale Documents 171, therefore suggests that only adgubx (adKID) may be possible, based on Akk. atkuppu.)

ad - ša4 to sob, groan, wail

ad-ša4 wailing, lamenting (nissatu); sound (of an instrument or song)

kušad-tab reins

(giš)ád(GÍR-gunû), àddu boxthorn; thorn (eddettu) (some now read kíšig) (see Attinger, ZA 95, 263f. for detailed discussion of readings)

ad4(ZA-tenû) crippled, lame (kubbulu)

adda/ad6(LÚxÚŠ) (also written LÚ.ÚŠ or ad8(LÚ- šeššigxÚŠ) and adx(LÚ.GAM)) (human) corpse (Veldhuis, AV Sigrist 224-6). ad6 is also used for animal carcasses, e.g. Nik I 162 i 3.

ádda/àd(UDUxÚŠ) (also written UDU.ÚŠ or GUDx ÚŠ) (animal) carcass (Veldhuis, AV Sigrist 224-6)

addir river-crossing, ford; toll, fare, rent, hire (RLA 8, 157 Miete) (cf. má-addir ferry boat)

gišáddu(Ú.GÍR) (reading uncertain, compare gišád)

ag → a5

 

aga (a kind of crown, "tiara, diadem"); (an axe)

àga-gi4-a-bé later, afterwards (see a-ga(-aš)-gi4) àga-kár/ŠÈ - sì to conquer, defeat (cf. àga - kár to

defeat) (Klein, AV Tadmor 310f.; Steinkeller, WZKM 77, 188f. + n. 17)

àga-rí(n) → aĝarin

àga-ús, aga-ús constable, guard, bodyguard; soldier (Lafont, CDLI 2009:5, 9ff.) (ālik urki 'one who goes behind')

agargara(NUN)(ku6) (a fish or fish spawn)

agrun(É.NUN) (a sacred building or room); (an epithet of the abzu) (Attinger, ZA 95, 268)

áĝ to measure out, mete out; to pay (esp. in grain)

áĝ - gi4 to kill (Jacobsen & Kramer, JNES 12, 185 n. 68)

aĝarin(AMA.dINANNA), àga-rí(-n) mother (creatress); (fertile) soil; mold, crucible; mixing basin (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 239)

aĝrig steward (PSD A/3 translates "housekeeper")

ah, aah (in Gudea) → uh ak → a5

àka(ŠID) fleece; tuft of wool akan(UBUR) udder, teat, nipple akkil cry, clamor; acclaim túgaktum(A.SU) (a garment) gišal mattock, hoe, "pickaxe"

al - a5 to hoe, work with the hoe

al - du11 to desire, want; to request, ask for, demand (Attinger, Eléments 429-438)

gišal-ĝar (a musical instrument) (PSD A/3 147 translates: (a lyre)) (Attinger, ZA 95, 270)

gišal-ĝar-sur/sur9(-ra) (a musical instrument, probably drumstick) (Veldhuis, AfO 44/45, 119f.; Attinger, ZA 95, 270)

al-la-nu-um oak; acorn

al-lubku6, al-lu5(b) (older rdg. al-lul) (crayfish or crab)

al-tar construction work (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 231-5)

(d)alad(LAMMAxBAD) male guardian angel, male counterpart of → dlamma

alal(ŠIDxA), alalx(ABxA) conduit, pipe

alam, alan figure; statue. PSD A/3 170a calls alam the preferred phonetic form. A reading alaĝ based on the important reference PEa 845 (Jx) a-la-áĝ, is doubted by Krecher [privately circulated correction sheet to his AV Matouš II article] and by J. Bauer, Or ns 43, 129. See also Yoshikawa, ASJ 12, 344-347.

alim bison (kusarikku)

alim-ma honored one (kabtu)

am wild bull am-si elephant ama mother

ama-a-tu → ama-tu ama-ab, ama-ad parents

ama(-ar) - gi4 to free, manumit

ama(-ar)-gi4 manumission, freedom

ama-ér(-ra) wailing woman, female mourner

ama-érin(-na) elite troops AMA.GAN(.ŠA) šaganx AMA.dINANNA aĝarin, amalu

ama-tu(d), ama-a-tu house-born slave (cf. ama5)

 

ama-ugu(4) mother who has born, one's own true mother

ama5, (ama) private quarters of women and young children (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 76-78) (cf. é- mí)

ama5-kalam-ma storehouse/dwelling-quarters of the land (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 78)

amalu(AMA.dINANNA) (personal) goddess

amar calf; young of other animals

damar-utu(-k) Marduk, patron-deity of Babylon

amaš sheepfold

ambar marsh, swamp

an sky, heaven; the sky god An

an, an-na high, tall (cf. ùn and ĝi6-ù/un-na)

an-bar, an, KÙ.AN iron (Reiter, AOAT 249, 244ff.)

an-bar7 noon, noontime heat an-dùl shade, cover; protection an-eden-na high plain, steppe an-ĝá and still, even so

an-kára → á-an-kára

an-ki heaven and earth, the universe

an-na (or AN.NA, perhaps to be read niggi or nagga) tin; iron(?) (Reiter, AOAT 249, 259ff.)

an-pa heaven's top, zenith

an-šà heaven's middle, middle of the sky

an-šár heavenly sphere, whole sky

an-ta above, from above, down; in front; prefix (grammatical term)

an-ta-sur-ra (a Lagash geographical area); (obsidian?)

an-ub-da-límmu-ba the four world quarters

an-úr base of heaven, horizon

an-usan, an-ú-sa11-an evening

an-za-gàr tower, (fortified) outpost anše donkey; (equid in general) anše-bará-lá pack ass ANŠE.KUR.RA → sisi

anše-kúnga (ANŠE.BARxAN) mule (offspring of a donkey and an onager) (Heimpel, BSA 8, 89-91; RlA Maultier)

anše-zi-qùm equids kept at royal road stations (Ur III) (Heimpel, RA 88, 5-31)

anzu(d)mušen, ánzu(d)mušen (a mythological lion-headed eagle, symbol of Ninĝirsu & Ninurta) (also with phone- tic indicator ananzumušen, older reading danzumušen, see Borger, AOAT 305, p. 171). For derivation from

/imdugud/ see Jacobsen, AV Kantor 129 n. 18.

gišapin plow

apin-lá tenancy, rent; tenant, lessee; cultivator (Steinkeller, JESHO 24, 114 n. 5)

apkal → abgal

ar-ga-núm (a resin)

ár, ar, a-a-ar praise

ár - a5/du11 to praise (Attinger, Eléments 439f.)

àr to mill, grind flour na4àra mill, millstone àr-dú → HAR-tud, ìr arad, árad ìr

arhuš compassion, mercy; womb (rēmu) (Civil, AV Hallo 78 + n 21)

 

gišásal(A.TU.GAB.LIŠ) Euphrates poplar(?) (şarbatu)

asil(a)(EZENxLÁL), asil-lá acclaim, paean, jubilation

aš(a) v. and adj. (to be) one, alone, unique (cf. dili) (Edzard, AV Klein 99f.)

áš, á-áš, aš curse

áš - a5/bal/du11 to swear at, insult, curse (Civil, JNES 43, 294; Attinger, Eléments 445-450)

munusáš-gàr female goat (reading zèh is obsolete; Heimpel, BSA 7, 116ff. reads ašgar)

àš six (Edzard, AV Klein 102)

aša5 a-šà

ašgab leatherworker

dašnan (a goddess figure personifying emmer wheat) (see also dezinu)

az bear

azlagx(LÚ.TÚG), azlag3-6 fuller, washerman (also conventionally read àšlag, etc.; see Yuhong, AV Klein 394f. for writings and etymology) (ašlāku)

B

ba to allot, distribute, assign, divide up, give a gift or share; to reduce, diminish, deteriorate

ba allotment, share

baku6 snail(?)

ba-al to dig up/out, excavate, mine, quarry (herû); to unload (a boat)

ba-al-gi(4), ba-al-gu7 (also with fish determinative) turtle

ba-an bán

ba-an-du8(-du8), ba-an-du5 (reed, wood or copper determinative) bucket, pail; sowing basket (cf. Civil,

Farmer's Instructions p. 74 + n. 26, contra PSD B which considers the two variants to be two different words.)

ba-an-gi4 response, answer

ba-ba(-da/za) porridge

dba-ba6 chief goddess of Ĝirsu, consort of Ninĝirsu (for the reading see Rubio, JCS 62 (2010) 35-39 contra dba-ú argued for by Marchesi, Or 71 (2002) 161-172)

ba-da-ra dagger, a ceremonial kind of knife (Akk. patru > Sum. ba-da-ra back-loaned > Akk. patarru) (PSD B 18 'rod, prod' is not correct; see Civil, Oriental Institute website corrections to PSD) (Civil, AV Biggs 18)

ba-ri/rí-ga (a large measuring vessel = 60 sìla in Ur III)

ba-za cripple, dwarf

bà(EŠ) v. to halve; n. half

babbar, bar6-bar6 (PSD bábbar) v. and adj. (to be) white, shining

bad(r) to open up, spread wide, be wide apart, separate; to untie, unravel, reveal; to be distant, remote, removed; to thresh (see recently Krecher, AV Kutscher 111-116)

bad, bad-rá, bad-da open(ed), spread wide; remote

bàd (city) wall, fortification

bàd(-da) high (cf. ùn) bàd-si parapet

báhar potter (Sallaberger Töpfer passim)

bal, bala to cross over, pass by or through; to overturn turn over, around, aside, upside down, against; to change, exchange; to pour out (liquid)

bal-a-ri opposite side, shore bal-bal-e (an OB hymn type) gišbala spindle; rod, pin

 

bala (rotating) term of office or service, turn of duty; reign; cf. bala-gub-ba term of duty

bala(-šè) - a5 transport (for trade)

balaĝ harp (some translate 'lyre'); (a large drum?); (an OB and later eme-sal lamentation, part of the temple liturgy together with the ér-šèm-ma) (Civil, AV Biggs 18; Veldhuis, AfO 44/45, 120) (balangu)

balaĝ-di harp player, lamentation singer

gišban gišpan

bán, ba-an (later with wood or pot determinative) (a container and capacity measure = 6 sìla in Pre-

Sargonic texts, 10 sìla thereafter) (Steinkeller, Or 51, 359f.)

bànda, bàn-da (or bàndada) small(er), young(er), minor, junior; short (time); impetuous, wild (note that Labat and Borger AbZ, read banda3 rather than Deimel's banda1, a practice now universal)

bànda young one, child, infant; offspring, progeny; attendant

gišbanšur table; offering table, altar

bappir, bàppir beer bread (a baked loaf of brewing ingredients)

bar to (make) lie/be outside, go away, send out, set aside, release, split open; to delimit, allot (fields)

bar outside, exterior; outer appearance; body; back, edge; fleece

bar alien, strange; cf. lú-bar-ra foreigner, stranger bar "liver" (as a seat of emotions), mood, spirits bar NOUN-ak-a or bar-PRONOUN-a because of,

instead of, with regard to, e.g. bar-bi-a because of this

bar - a5 to examine, test, put to trial

bar-da, bar-dù-a crosspiece, crossbar

túgbar-dul5 (a common garment); (describing a goat or a goat hide in OS)

bar-ĝál unshorn, with unplucked fleece

bar-lá (a canal basin?) bar-rim4 arid, dry land túgbar-si sash, shawl

bar-su(-ga), bar-sù(-a) with plucked fleece, with fleece removed

bar-sù(d) (a rubric marking a sub-section of a tigi or

adab hymn of praise)

bar-šè out, away, toward the outside

bar-šèĝ(-ĝá) fog, mist, drizzle

bar-ta away, aside, outside

bar-ta - gub, bar-šè - gub to stand aside, keep away, stay aloof

bar - tam to examine, choose, select (periphrastic:

bar-tam - ak)

bar-udu sheep's fleece

bar-ús(urudu) (pointed) goading stick (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 72)

bar7(NE) to blaze, flame, burn

bára(g) (barag) (para10) conventional translations: dais, throne; sovereign, ruler, king; (pack-)sack. Civil, AV Biggs 21 now reads /parak/ and translates: (1) 'curtain of separation' (around the area reserved to the king and royal family or to a deity in a temple); fig. 'royal person, royal abode' (parakku); (2) 'a package made with sackcloth' (bašamu, saqqu)

bára-mah high dais

bára-si-ga socle

bàra(g), ba-ra(-g), (pàr) to spread out (upon), strew

bi-iz → biz bí-za-za frog

bi7(d), bìd n. excrement, dung; anus(?); v. to defecate

 

bibra(HÚL)mušen (a bird); (a bird-shaped cup) (Veldhuis, Education 224)

bíl to heat, burn, scorch

bíl-ga (fresh) fruit; (male) ancestor, cf. pa-bíl-ga bíl-lá pe-el-lá

bíl-lá, bíl-la hot

bíl-lá-bé, bíl-la-bé heatedly, feverishly, ardently

biluda, bi-lu-da, pì-lu5-da, be6-lu5-da bēlūtu, Steinkeller, JNES 46 (1987)

58. Cf. Steible, AOAT 253, 380f.)

bir (reduplicated: bir-bir-re, bi-ib-r(e), bi-bi-r(e)) to scatter, disperse

bír v. to shrivel, wrinkle; adj. flacid, shriveled

*bìr surx, érin (rdg. bìr is now obsolete; see Steinkeller, WZKM 77, 192, JNES 46, 58f.; Selz,

UGASL 43 n. 178)

bir4 to bake (bricks, pottery) (pronunciation is uncertain)

bir5(NAM)mušen locust (Veldhuis, Education 224) bir6, bir7, bir to rip/break to pieces, shred, tear biz(BI), bi-iz to drip, drop

-braš (wr. -ib-ra-aš, ba(r)-ra-aš) to fly (loan from the Akk. root prš)

bu(r), bù(r), bur, búr, bux(PAD) (variant bu-ús, Emesal zé(r), zé-zé) to pull, rip, tear, pluck out, uproot, extract, extirpate; to drain (water) (Molina, JNES 63, 5-7)

bu

bu-lu-úh, bu-luh, bu-úh, bu-bu-luh to quiver, shudder, be frightened

bu-lu-úh/buluh - si-il to belch, burp

bu-ud-ba-ad - za to thud (an onomatopoetic construction, see Civil, JCS 20, 117ff.; Black, AV Wilcke 35ff.)

bu-ús → bu(r)

bú, bu, pú to flit, rush about

bugin, bunin (multiple spellings exist, middle/last consonant may be /ĝ/) bucket, trough

bul (bu5), to blow, blow up, fill with air

 

i7buranun(-na) Euphrates

bùru (bùr) (area measure = 18 iku = 1800 sar = ca. 63,510 sq. meters) (Yuhong, AV Klein 391)

bùru(d) (bùr) n. hole, pit, depths; depth; v. to make a hole, pierce, break into, burgle; to be deep, deepen; to penetrate, understand; adj. deep

4

buru mušen (a bird of prey or a vulture, OS); raven (Ur III onward) (Veldhuis, Education 226-228)

buru mušen (bur ) (a small bird that lives in flocks,

5                         5

bulug chisel; needle, pin; seal-pin (Civil Oriental Institute website corrections to PSD B); latch-pin(?); border-marker(?); axis

bulug-KIN-gur4 (surgical) lancet

bùluĝ to grow up, rear children or young, make grow, ripen; to be great, to elevate

bùluĝ, bulùĝ-ĝá foster-child

bunga(NITA(2).GA) child

bur (stone) bowl, vessel (Yuhong, AV Klein 391)

bur-gi4-a (a kind of offering)

bur-gul stonecutter, engraver

bur-saĝ (a servant); (a building used for storage of offerings, see Heimpel, JCS 33, 106)

bur-šu-ma old woman, matron, matriarch

bur-zi (a kind of bowl)

úbúr (a kind of grass)

búr to free, loosen, release; to reveal, explain, interpret (dreams); to undo, nullify (curse, sin, anger); to spread widely, spread out over, cover (cf. á - búr, ki-búr, múš - búr)

búr, bu, bu7 to glow, shine

búr-ra(-ah) (an architectural term)

búr-ra-bé openly, publicly

 

possibly a sparrow); locust (OB and later) (Veldhuis, Education 229-231)

buru5-habrud(-da)mušen partridge(?) (işşur hurri) (Veldhuis, Education 231-233)

buru14 harvest, crop; harvest time

D

da, da(g) side; near (cf. Krecher, ASJ 9, 88 n. 39); cf.

da-gu10 at my side (Or ns 54, 57:18)

DA á

da-ga-an, da-ga-na, daggan(KI.GIŠGAL) bedroom, private room (Krecher, ASJ 9, 88 n. 39; Civil, AV Biggs 18) (dakkannu)

da-gi4-a, dag-gi4-a district, ward, city quarter (bābtu); cf. ùsar da-gi4-a neighbor (Steinkeller, Sales Documents 242f.)

da-ri, da-rí lasting, eternal (cf. Akk. dārû)

da-ri/rí-šè forever

da - ri to lead at one's side (so Selz, ASJ 17, 251ff., who reads the verbal root as /dri/; cf. maš-da-ri-a)

dab5, dab, dab6/da5(b) to fasten onto (-a), hold onto, detain; to seize, take (with -e/a); to be attached to, employed at (-da) (often elliptical for šu - dab5)

dab6 to go around, circle (lawû) (some read da5) dabin(ZÌ.ŠE) barley meal or flour

dadag v. and adj. (to be) (cultically) pure, (legally) exonerated

dag to move, run about, roam

dag-gi4-a  da-gi4-a

daĝal v. & adj. (to be) wide, broad, vast, far-reaching, widespread; n. breadth

daĝal-bé broadly

daĝal - tag to spread wide

dah to add (to); to do, say, give in addition; to help (ePSD now reads tah)

gišdal, dalx(HU) crosspiece, traverse beam (tallu)

dal to fly

dal, dal-a, dal-dal flying, in flight

dal-ba-an(-na) in between (area)

dalla - è to be visible, apparent, manifest; (to shine

 

dàra, darah, dara4 Persian wild goat, bezoar (Steinkeller, SEL 6, 3-7; BSA 8, 50) (PSD A/2 109

reads tarah, ePSD reads durah.) dàra-maš wild goat stag

to pour

dè-dal ashes

de5(g) na - de5(g)

de5(g) to pick up, gather up, collect; to remove, plunder (Sallaberger, AV Klein 250) Many still read ri(g); Selz, ASJ 17, 260 reads /dri/.  See also Steinkeller, JCS 35, 249f.

de5-de5-ga collected (dead animals or people) (technical term in Girsu and Umma, Heimpel, BSA 8 138 n. 80; Sallaberger, AV Klein 250)

de6 → túm

di → du and du11

di(d) court case, lawsuit, claim; verdict, judgment

forth in radiance, be/make resplendent, splendid, i.e. near synonym of pa - è ?) (šupû)

 

di - dab5

 

to render a verdict

dam spouse, wife, husband

dam-bàndada secondary or junior wife, concubine

dam-gàr merchant (tamkāru)

dam-ha-ra tamhāru)

dam-ha-ra - a5 to do battle with (-da-)

 

di - du11 to sue, go to court, trial, litigate with (-da-) (Attinger, Eléments 459-464)

di - ku5(dr) to judge, render a verdict

di-ku5 judge; judging (cf. ki di-ku5) di4(l) smaller (Civil, OrAnt 21 (1982) 12)

di -di (-lá) little ones, youngsters, children

4        4

danna(KASKAL.GÍD), da-na double hour (a distance measure, ca. 6.6 miles)

dan6(UŠxTAG4) to clean, wash (Steinkeller, OrAnt 19, 83-84) (cf. gáb-dan6 cleaner)

darmušen francolin (ittidû)

dar to split

dar-ra split, fileted (fish)

 

(reduplicated form of tur) W. Farber, Mesopotamian Civilizations 2 (1989) 9 reads du13-du13-lá.

dib to pass, go, move (by, along, or beyond); to walk (along), tread; to pass in review (at an inspection, see Heimpel, BSA 8, 120)

dida sweet-wort

didli dili-dili)

diĝir (conventionally dingir) god, goddess

dili one, single, individual, lone, unique (Edzard, AV Klein 99)

dili-bé, dili-bi-šè alone, by oneself

díli(m), dílim spoon; shallow dish, balance-pan (of a scale) (Civil, AV Biggs 23)

gišdim post, mast

gišdim-gal, gišdimgul mooring-pole (tarkullu)

dím to fashion, form, create, build; to make like, make into (-šè)

dím-ma ţēmu)

gišdimgul → gišdim-gal

diri(g) to float, drift, glide; to sail (downstream)

diri(g) to be more than (-a, see FAOS 5/2, 289), greater than, exceed, surpass; to be excessive, extra, surplus, additional; (also used as adj. and noun)

diri-bé, diri-šè overwhelmingly, even more; cf. diri- zu-šè 'more than you'

diš one (the counting word?); a single, certain one (Edzard, AV Klein 99f.)

du to come, go, move (about) Forms include: du imperf. sg.; ĝen perf. sg.; su8(b) imperf. pl.; (e)re7 (OS erx(DU.DU)) perf. pl.; di present participle (atalluku, Sefati, Love Songs p. 159); ĝe26(n) in imperatives

 

du5-mu → dumu

du6(l) hill, hillock, mound, 'tell' (often confused with habrud, see Yuhong, AV Klein 374-381, who states that the Auslaut is /l/; cf. OS Fara name A-du6-la WF 42 iv 5) ePSD assumes a /d/ Auslaut; Steinkeller, AV Biggs 219 n. 2 provides references for /dr/) (tillu)

du6-kù The Holy Hill (a primeval residence of the great gods, cf. the Greek Mount Olympus. See Hruška, WZKM 86, 161-175)

6

du6-ul (or dul ul) to gather (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 92)

du6-úr, du6-ùr (the name of the ziggurrat in Ur) (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 334-338)

du7(dr) v. and adj. (to be) complete, perfect, unblemished (šuklulu); (to be) fitting, proper, suited for, becoming to (wasāmu, see Attinger, ZA 88, 182 n. 64; Sjöberg, AV Wilcke 263 + n. 29 ) cf. šu - du7

du7(dr?) to batter, gore, attack

du8 opening (petû) (Yuhong, AV Klein 378)

du8(h/r) to release, free; to let go of, fall away, hang down, fall free; to wean; to redeem, ransom; to open, untie, take off; to bake; to caulk, spread (the last two may be separate or different verbs)

du8(b) to equip richly, adorn; to heap up, fill up (possibly a variant of dub)

du -du -a richly laden, equipped

(Thomsen, Sumerian Language p. 134f.; Sallaberger,                         8         8

AV Schretter 557ff.)

DU → ku4(r), túm

du-lum misery, suffering, hardship

dú → tu(d)

to build, erect, make; to plant; to apply, affix, make

 

(na4)du8-ši-a topaz(?)

du9 to churn

du9(n), dun5, (sun5) to be humble; to be subordinate to, under the authority of (cf. the OS adj. dun-a subordinate to, in the charge of)

du -na (sun -na) humble

fast, build onto; to detain, hold back; to drive in, insert .                     9                       5

Some now read drù (cf. rú).

DU3 → rú

dù-a(-bi) all (of it/them)

 

du9-na-bé, du9-né-eš humbly (ašriš)

du10(b), du10-ub knees, lap

du10(b) - bad to stride, run

du10(b) - gurum to lie down, rest (said of animals)

du10(b)-tuku having strong legs (for running)

du10(g) (dùg) to be good, pleasing, enjoyable, sweet (fig.); to enjoy, relish

du10(g), du10-ga good, pleasant, fine, sweet

du10-du10-ga best, finest

du10-ge-eš finely, sweetly (said of the voice)

du10-sa companion, comrade

du11(g) (dug4) to do, use (aux. verb); to act or serve as. Forms include: du11 perf. sg.; e perf. pl. & imperf.; di present participle & infinitive (later, rarely, finite imperf.)

du11(g) to say, speak (elliptical for inim - du11)

du12 (short form of → tuku, seen especially when reduplicated)

du14 quarrel (with /d/ or /dr/ Auslaut, see Attinger, Eléments p. 466f. )

du14 - mú to incite a quarrel

dub tablet, document

dub to heap up, pour in piles

dub-ba-an, gi-dub-ba-an(-na) reed fence-post, fence of bundled reeds (Alster, Dumuzi's Dream p. 95-96)

dub-dab5 - za to thud, batter (an onomatopoetic construction, see Civil, JCS 20, 117ff.; Black, AV Wilcke 35ff.)

dub-lá gatehouse, gateway(?); foundation platform, terrace; canal locks(?)

dub-saĝ first (mahrû)

dub-sar scribe

dub-šen (treasure) chest (as part of temple furnishings); foundation box

 

dúb to tremble, shake, quake; to flutter, flail, flap (hands or wings)

dubsig(ÍL) (or dupsik) work basket, corvée basket (often with a wood or reed determinative; previously read dusu) (tupšikku)

dug pot, jar, vessel

kušdùg-gan bag (tukkannu)

dugud v. & adj. (to be) heavy, huge, weighty, important

duh, dudda(?) bran, chaff

dul, dùl, dul5(TÚG) to cover; to envelop, wrap

dum-dam - za to complain (nazāmu); to howl, roar, cry out; to rejoice (Sjöberg, AV Limet 126f.)

dumu child, son, daughter; citizen (of a particular city); (member of a class, group, craft) Emesal du5- mu

dumu-gi7(-ra) free or 'conditionally free' person (cf. ASJ 11, 217), freeborn citizen; noble, princely child; aristocrat (Cooper, Curse of Agade p. 240) (Maiocchi, CUSAS 13, 39)

dumu-KA (a kinship term, 'descendent' or the like) (Sjöberg, AV Falkenstein 209-212)

dumu-munus daughter (some read dumu-mí; reading dumu-sal is obsolete) (logogram is an Akkadian innovation, not attested before Ur III; see Steinkeller, Or ns 51, 358)

dumu-nita(h) male child (see also ibila(DUMU. NITA) (male) heir)

dun to dig

dun to weave

dun(-a) v. and adj. (to be) under the authority of, subordinate to (see du9(n))

dun5du9(n) dungu(IM.DIRI) cloud

dur cable, cord (Waetzoldt, BSA 6, 132); umbilicus; bond, link

dur-an-ki(-k) Bond of Heaven and Earth (poetic term for Enlil's temple complex in Nippur)

dúr, dúr-ru(n), durunx tuš

dúr base; bottom (the body part, cf. MSL 9, 65:92 Ugu-mu Susa); seat, residence (išdu, šaplu)

gišdúr seat (of a chair); bottom board, wooden bottom

dúr-bi-šè, dúr-ra-ni-šè at the bottom or back, in last place (physically or in a scale of values) (Civil, JNES 43, 285f.; AuOr 7, 147)

dúr - ĝar to take a seat, settle, establish residence (for reading cf. Shulgi F 24 dúr-ra-ni bí-ì-ĝar)

gišdúr-ĝar chair, throne (durgar(r)û) (Steinkeller, JNES 52, 144)

9

dùr, dur9, du24-ùr (or dur ùr) donkey stallion

urududur10(ŠEN) (an ax)

urududur10-al-lub (a war ax with curved handle or semicircular blade) (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 149- 151)

urududur10-tab-ba double-ax (Civil, AuOr 5, 22f.)

duru5, dur5(-ru) wet, moist, damp; irrigated; fresh (i.e. not dried or as opposed to dry)

imdurun-na, imtu-ru-na oven (Civil, JCS 25, 172-175)

gidusu(ÍL) (read now → dubsig)

E

e Hey! (an interjection) (Attinger, Eléments p. 178)

e du11

e, ég, e4(A) (raised) irrigation ditch, embankment, levee, "a broad earthen wall which accomodated a ditch or small canal running along its top" (Steinkeller,

 

JAOS 115 [1995] 543) (iku) (conventionally read e, but

see Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 109-113, 136 n. 2) e-el-lu, e-li-lu, e-lil-la (a shout of joy, a work cry) kušE.ÍB (read kušguru21/kuru14?) belt, girdle

kušE.ÍB-ùr (siege-)shield (Attinger, ZA 88, 182 reads

x

eegur ùr = /egbur

e-ki-sur-ra boundary ditch

e-ne (older a-ne) he, she

e-ne - du11(g) to play, dance (Attinger, Eléments 468-

474) (cf. éšemen)

e-ne - sù(-ud) to copulate (Attinger, Eléments 474- 477)

e-ne-šè/éš → ì-ne-éš

e-pa5 (raised) irrigation ditch

e-sír street

kuše-sír, (e)èsir(LAK 173) sandals (see Civil, Or 56, 237, also Steinkeller, AfO 28, 140f. for the OS writing)

é house, household, estate; temple (Read now or à`, pronounced [ah] or [hah]? Some Auslaut must be posited to account for the common writing é-a-ni rather than é-ni.)

É (read or à` as an older variant of a "water")

é-ba-an, é-pa-na pair

é-babbar (the temple of of the sun-god Utu in Larsa and Sippar)

é-bappir (possibly é-lunga in certain contexts) brewery

é-dù-a built-up house lot, improved real estate

é-dub-ba(-a) school; storehouse (in some contexts read

é-kìšib-ba?)

é-duru5 village, hamlet

é-éš(-k) jail (Civil, AV Hallo 75)

é-éš-dam → éš-dam é-gal palace

é-gar8 wall

é-gi4-a (prospective) daughter-in-law, bride

é-itima dark room, cella (divine or royal inner chamber, bedchamber)

é-kišib-ba warehouse, storehouse

é-kur (the temple of Enlil in Nippur)

é-lunga(n) brewery (see LSUr 306; perhaps read é- bappir in certain contexts)

é-mar-URU5, mar-URU/ru10 quiver (Eichler, AV Hallo 90-94; Civil, JCS 55, 52)

é-me-eš summer

é-muhaldim cookhouse, kitchen

é-nì-gur11(GA)-ra treasury (but see disc. under ĝar for rdg. -ga-ra)

é-ri-a a-ri-a

é-su-lum-ma rope-box

é-šutum(GI.NA.AB.TUM/DU7) storehouse (šutummu) (Pettinato AV Römer 278f.)

è(d) to come, go forth; to withdraw, remove, bring out

e11(d) to go up, down; to bring down, raze eb oval (traditionally read ib) ébih(ÉŠ.MAH) heavy rope (ebīhu)

eden (edin) plain, steppe, desert

eden-líl haunted steppe

ég e

eger (egir) back, rear (side); behind, after; inheritance

 

eger-u4-da(-k) future days

égi(MUNUS+GI7), egi(GI7) (or ègir, égir) princess, mistress (Steinkeller, AV Klein 305-310)

égi-zi faithful princess (an OB cultic office, also égi- zi-an-na) (egişītu) (Steinkeller, AV Klein 301ff. and in Priests and Officials in the Ancient Near East (Heidelberg, 1996) 122)

ellag block, ball

eme tongue; language, speech; blade

eme-gi7(r) (eme-gir15) native(?) speech (the main dialect of Sumerian)

eme-sal fine speech (the women's dialect of Sumerian, used in laments and temple liturgies and for direct speech of goddesses)

eme-sig base speech, slander, calumny

eme-sig - gu7 to slander, denounce

éme-da or emeda(UMxME.DA) nursemaid (Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Texts 62; ASJ 88-90)

éme-ga wet nurse (Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Texts 62; ASJ 88-90)

ème, eme6 female donkey, donkey mare

en lord; high priest, high priestess (Steinkeller, in Priests and Officials in the Ancient Near East (Heidelberg, 1996) 103ff.) Emesal ù-mu-un

den-ki(g/k) god of water, wisdom and magic, patron of the city Eridu

den-líl the chief earthly god, city-god of Nippur (the líl

sign is written É in OS but KID in OB)

en-na until, as long as; up to (temporal), as far as (spatial); as much as (in extent or amount)

en-nu-ùĝ, en-nu-uĝ5, en-NUN watch; watchman, guard (cf. MSL XII 101:107, 116:14 contra Krecher, AV Matouš II 37)

en-nu(-ùĝ) - a5 to guard, watch

en-šè, en-na-me-šè how long?

en-te-en, en-te-n(V) winter

èn-du song (zamāru) (J. G. Westenholz, AV Klein 348-350)

èn - tar to ask, question, investigate; to take care of, attend to, tend

engar plowman, farmer

engiz(EN.ME.GI), éngiz (OS) temple cook

engur depths (synonym of abzu.) enkara, en/an-kará á-an-kára enku(dr) fishery inspector

enkum temple treasurer, tax collector; (a mythical servitor of Enki; the female equivalent is ninkum)

enmen, énmen thirst (ePSD reads now immen) ensi(EN.ME.LI), énsi (OS) dream interpreter

énsi(k) ruler, governor; farmer (iššiakku) (Jacobsen, AV Civil 113-121; Sjöberg, AV Limet 125; Frayne, RIM Early Periods 1, 15f.) In early Sumerian also written ensix(GAR.ENSI2) or ensix(ENSI2.GAR); cf. Hallo, Titles 35ff. (Emesal ù-mu-un-si)

ér, ír tear(s); lament, wail

ér-du10-ga tears of joy

ér - du11 to perform a lament (Attinger, Eléments 501- 507)

ér - pà(d) to produce tears, (begin to) cry

ér - še8(š) (šéš) to cry, weep

ér-gig - še8-še8 (ši-ši) to weep bitter tears

ér-šà-hun-ĝá (a type of 1st person Emesal penitential prayer)

ér-šèm-ma (a short Emesal lament or penitential hymn, later a part of the temple liturgy)

 

ereš(NIN), eriš lady, queen (see Marchesi, Or 73 [2004] 186-189 on reading nin vs. ereš)

ereš-diĝir the human consort of a god (= the female en); the attendent or companion of a goddess (dependent upon the date of the text) (The reading nin-diĝir is conventional, but the dictionaries now read ereš-diĝir. See Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma p. 171 and the exhaustive discussion by Steinkeller in Priests and Officials in the Ancient Near East (Heidelberg, 1996) 120ff.)

érim evil; enemy (some read ne-ru) érim-du evildoer; inimical one érim-ĝál evil, hostile

èrim, èrin, erim/n5 storehouse, treasury

gišeren (gišerin) cedar (tree, wood)

érin workers, work-gang; conscripts (Durand, CDLJ 2009:5, 12); troops (Ur III and later; for OS read → surx) (Selz, UGASL 43 n. 178; Steinkeller, NABU 1990/12)

gišérin → ĝiš-rín gišés-ad trap, snare gišesi(g) ebony na4esi(g) diorite esir, ésir bitumen

ésir-a-ba-al (a kind of bitumen)

ésir-é-a refined(?) bitumen

ésir-HÁD dry(?) bitumen (see HÁD) eš, eš5 three (Edzard, AV Klein 100f.)

eš-bar, èš-bar oracle, divine decision, revelation

eš-bar - kíĝ to provoke an oracle, seek a divine decision (paraphastic: eš-bar-kíĝ - du11, see Attinger, Eléments 507f.)

eš-da (a cultic vessel, variant of šita)

éš rope, measuring-line; a length measure = 10 nindan

= 20 gi = 120 kùš = ca. 59.4 meters

éš-dam, é-éš-dam inn, tavern; brothel(?) éš-gána field surveyor's measuring-line éš-gàr assignment; song series, collection éš - gíd lú-éš-gíd

ÉŠ.MAH → ébih

èš shrine, sanctuary (a smaller establishment than an é

temple, see Allred, AV Sigrist 12)

èš-èš (a regular offering held 2-4 times monthly at the lunar phases) (eššešu)

eša(A.TIR) (a kind or quality of flour, sasqû)

éšemen(KI.E.NE.DI.dINANA) jump-rope (keppu)

eškiri(U.ENxKÁR), éš-kìri nose-rope, lead-rope (cf. Veldhuis Education 175f.)

eštubku6 (a kind of carp or barb)

ezem, ezen (i.e. ezeĝ?) festival

dézinu (grain goddess, divine personification of emmer wheat, grain) (also read dašnan)

G

ga milk; suckling (as attribute of animals)

ga-àr(a), gára, ga'ara(LAK 490) cream; cheese made without rennet (modern kišk) (see Civil, Or 56 (1987) 234f.; Stol, BSA 7, 104ff. with proposed etymology of

E.R. Ellison: "milled (grated) cheese"; Teuber, BSA 8, 26ff. for origin of ga'ara sign) Note that ePSD now separates gamurx(LAK490) , gára "cream" from gára, ga-àr "cheese" (eqīdu).

ga-ba-ra, gáb-ra (OS) herder, herding-boy

ga-ba-ra-hum rebellion (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 78)

 

ga-eš8(KASKAL) (or ga-raš) traveling merchant, import-export merchant; collector of tax or customs dues (also wr. gáeš(KASKAL.GA) in OS) (Sjöberg, AV Limet 129)

ga-eš8 a-ab-ba seafaring merchant

ga-eš8 - bar → ka-aš - bar ga-i-ti-ir-da buttermilk

ga-ki-si(-im)-ma clabber (cf. the yoghurt-like modern Iraqi lebn)

ga-lam galam

ga-na Up! Come on! (interjection)

ga-rašnisi leek

gišga-ríg comb

ga-ša-an (Emesal for → nin)

ga6(ĝ) in ga6(ÍL)-ĝá (var. ga-an-ĝá, gan-ĝá) to trans- port (Waetzoldt NABU 1992 No. 16) Cf. the phonetic spelling iti-ga6-ga6for standard iti-gan-gan-è, Steinkeller, Sales Documents 225. Relation to íl(-la) is unclear; they can cooccur. But only ga6 occurs at Garšana, thus probably a geographical dialect feature.

ga'ar(a)(LAK 490) → ga-àr gáb → gùb

gáb-, gan- (in frozen cohortative verbal forms used as nouns such as gáb-ra or ga-an-tuš (Selz, RA 87 (1993) 29-45)

gab2-dan6(UŠxTAG4) cleaner (Steinkeller, OrAnt 19 (1980) 83f.)

gáb-gi(-in) guarantor

gáb-ra → ga-ba-ra

gaba breast, chest; front, edge, facing side; coast (of the sea); frontier; surface

gaba - ĝál to be proud, plume oneself (cf. German "sich brüsten")

gaba-gi4 counterpart, adversary

gaba nu-ru-gú unopposable, irresistable

gaba - ri to advance against

gaba-ri rival; equal, equivalent; copy, duplicate; response, answer

gaba-šè - du to go before; to confront

gaba šu - ĝar to hold back, detain; to resist, oppose

gaba-šu-ĝar rival, opponent

gada linen garment, cloth

(giš)gag (or kak) peg, nail, cone, plug (For description of the inscribed pierced cones which recorded property sales see Steinkeller, Sales Documents 238-241.)

gakkul (brewing) vat

gal cup

gal, gu-ul v. and adj. (to be) big, large, great; older, elder, eldest

gal(-la) great, greater (see also gu-la); adv. well, greatly

gal-bé greatly, well, to a great degree, generously, in a grand manner

gal-le-eš, gal-bi-šè (synonym of gal-bé)

gal-di (ppl. of gal - du11) greatly accomplished, pre- eminent, excellent, excelling (ra'bu, tizqāru); cf. gal- gal-di boaster, boasting(?) (mukabbiru) (Attinger, Eléments 510ff.)

gal - zu to be very wise, all-knowing, able

gal4-la vulva

gal5-lá (or galla) constable (Ur III) (cf. Civil "prosecu- tor," AV Hallo 74, rare after Ur III); a demonic bailiff of the netherworld (post-Ur III)

gal5-lá-gal chief constable (Ur III)

 

gala (cultic) hymn/lamentation singer, temple liturgist (cf. Gelb, StOr 46, 64-74; W. Roscoe, History of Religions 35/3 [1996] 213-217)

GALAM → sukud

(ĝiš)galam, ga-lam stair, step (of a ladder) (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 176) (nakbasu); ladder, staircase (Steinkeller, AV Biggs 227 n. 20) (simmiltu) Cf. kun4-5

galam to (make) rise in stages, steps (Landsberger, AfO 12, 55) (summulu)

galam(-ma), ga-lam(-ma) artfully wrought/fashioned, artful, clever, skillful (naklu); stepped, storied (mountains) (Steinkeller, AV Biggs 227 n. 20)

galam-kad3/5 artfully wrought, well formed

galla → gal5-lá gam gurum

gàm handle (of a knife), hilt

gan-tuš resident, tenant (waššābu)

gána field area, agricultural tract, (cultivated) ground or land (Powell, JCS 25, 178-184)

GANA2 → a-šà(g), iku, kár

ganam4 ewe, sheep (cf. u8) (Civil, AV Biggs 18)

ganzir(IGI.KUR.ZA) (netherworld entrance) (Katz, AV Klein 191-193)

gàr - dar to subdue, overcome

gára → ga-àr

garadin (karadin) sheaf (kurullu) (MSL 14, 50; MSL 9, 117)

gáraš(KI.KAL.BAD) disaster, catastrophe in ka- gáraš-a mouth/opening of catastrophe (poetic) (Civil, AV Biggs 19) (pî karašîm)

gašam expert, master craftsman, artisan, wise person; master, mistress

gaz to crush; to smite, slaughter, kill (Read nàĝa in some meanings; see also gum.)

gišgaz → ĝiš-gaz, gišnàĝa

gazi wild licorice (Steinkeller, AOS 68, 92; Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 214); previously cassia(?) (kasû)

ge(n) → gi(n)

géme (OS var. gan) (dependent) woman; female serf (Maiocchi, CUSAS 13, 36); female slave, servant, worker (Gelb, AV Diakonoff 91-93)

géme-àr-àr female miller (some read géme-kíkken)

géšpu, gešba strength; fight, wrestling match (Sallaberger, Der kultische Kalender I 178 n. 838)

gi reed; measuring-reed, "rod" (a length measure = 6

kùš = ca. 2.5 meters) (Waetzoldt, BSA 6, 125-146)

gi(n), ge(n), gi-in to be firm, stable, secure, true; to make firm, confirm, prove, verify, certify, guarantee; to standardize (weights or measures)

gi(n), gi-na right, true, truthful; firm, secure; n. gi-na

regular dues (Sjöberg, AV Limet 127)

gi-di(-da) reed flute (player); cf. lú-gi-di-da flutist

gi-diš-ninda(n) measuring-reed of one nindan length (one gi is normally 1/2 nindan in length)

gi-dù-a reed fence (surrounding fields, Ur III)

gi (ér-ra) - du11 to play the flute/oboe (of lamentation) (Attinger, Eléments 514-516)

gi-dub-ba (reed) stylus

gi-dur umbilical cord

gi-èn-bar, NE.GI-bar (a kind of reed); cf. še-NE.GI- bar (a kind of millet?) (read perhaps gi-li-bar)

gi-gíd flute or double-oboe (like the Gk. aulos)

gi-gun4(-na), gi-gù-na cella, chapel (on top of the temple tower or upper terrace), divine audience chamber and living quarters (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 323-329; Steinkeller, AV Biggs 229 + n. 27)

 

gi-gur reed basket

gi-henbur(GAG), young reed

gi-izi-lá torch

gi-kaskal traveling basket

gi-kid → gikid

gišgi-muš steering-oar, punting-pole(?) (Powell, BSA 6, 117f.)

gi-na → gi(n) GI.NA.AB.DU7/TUM → é-šutum(x) gi-nindan → gi-diš-ninda, nindan

gi-rin (or gigirinx) n. flower; adj. flowered, blooming (Civil, AV Biggs 24f.) (cf. gurun fruit)

gi-sal (reed fence or screen on the roof of a building)

gi-sun mature, old reed

gi-šukur-ra → šukur

gi-zi reed shoots, fodder reed (Waetzoldt, BSA 6, 129f.)

gi4 to return; to remit; to send after, back, over; to send as a messenger; to turn away, aside, back; to bar, close up, lock away, withhold; to be sated; elliptical for inim

- gi4 to answer, respond (A rare /r/ Auslaut is seen in Pohl, TMH nf 1 4:9.)

gi4-me-a-aš colleague

GI6 → gíg, ĝi6

gi7(r) (gir15), gi(r) (girx) native, local, indigenous, domestic, domesticated (Steinkeller, AV Klein 305- 310; BSA 8, 64 n. 30) Steinkeller proposes an underlying pronunciation [ngir] or [ngidr]. ePSD reads ĝir15. Cf. ur-gi7(r) and eme-gi7(r). Borger AOAT 305 states only ge7 occurs in vocabularies, not gi7 or gir15.

gi16(l/b), gil/b, gilim/b to lie across, bar, block, obstruct (Civil, AV Biggs 24 reads gilimb)

gi16-sa adj. lasting, enduring, permanent; n. treasure (šukuttu)

gi16-sa(-aš/šè) - a5 to make (into a) lasting (thing)

gi16-gi16-sa jewels(?) (Ludingira 26)

gibil v. and adj. (to be) new, fresh

gíd to be long, lengthen; to pull, draw, drag, tow (a boat); to stretch, tighten (strings); to measure, survey; to milk (for the first meaning compare sù(d))

gíd(-da) long

gidim (i.e. g/kid/tim) ghost (Civil, AV Biggs 24) (eţemmu) (for sign form see Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 139)

gig (gib, kib) wheat

gig to be sore, painful, sick, weak; to be bad, evil, bitter, hateful; to be interdicted, "taboo"

gig-bé bitterly

gíg(GI6), gi6(g) black ePSD reads giggi like babbar when simplex, but gi6- gi6 when reduplicated. See ku10 and cf. ĝi6 night (Civil, EBLA 1975-1985, 155 n. 32.)

gišgigir chariot, wagon

gil/b, gilim/b → gi16(l/b)

gigilim entwined reed cords, cables (used as construction material) (Waetzoldt, BSA 6, 132-134)

gín (giĝ4) shekel (a weight = 1/60 ma-na = 8 gr.); (an axe? Cf. aga, tùn/agà) Proto Ea 718 supports a pronunciation /giĝ/, though /gin/ seems correct for OS; see Krecher, ZA 63, 199.

gir young cow, heifer

gir4 oven

gir4-bil oven-heater, stoker giri17-zal joy, delight; luxury gišgisal oar

 

gissu(n) (gizzu(n)) → ĝissu GIŠGAL-di → ùlu-di

gizzal - a5 to heed, pay attention to gu flax; linen(?); thread, string; snare gu-du buttocks

gu-la large; larger, greater (see Krecher, Or 47, 384 "groβ gegenüber einem anderen") (variant of gal-(l)a; both ma-sá-gal-gal and ma-sá-gu-la occur in DP 51 i 1, iv 5)

gu-lá bunch, bundle (tied with string)

gu-kilib gu-níĝin

gu-níĝin bale (Heimpel, CDLI: CDLN 2003:003 argues against conventional reading gu-kilib)

gu-ul (variant of both gal and gul)

gu-šúm cuneiform sign, script, wedge impression

gišgu-za chair, throne

gišgu-za-bára dais-seat, throne

gú(n), gú-un (or gúnun) load, burden; tax, tribute; talent (a weight = 60 ma-na = 28.8 kg.)

neck, shoulders; edge, bank, shore (of a canal, river, sea); totality; cf. gú-gú region (Pre-Sarg.)

gú - a5 to submit

gú-(a-)ab-ba seashore

gú-an-šè grand total, all together

gú - dù to hate; to refuse, neglect

gú - è to wear, be wrapped, enveloped, clothed, clad in

túggú-è coat (nahlaptu) (also with wood or leather determinatives, see Ferwada, Isin 19f.)

gú-en(-na) throne room, audience hall (lit. "totality of lords")

gú-gal (kù-ĝál in Ur III) (chief) water regulator, canal inspector (gugallu) (Steinkeller, Sales Documents 233)

gú - ĝar to gather, assemble

gú (ki-šè) - ĝar to lower the head, prostrate oneself, submit

gú ĝiš - ĝar/ĝál to put a neckstock on, make wear a yoke, subjugate (cf. ĝiš-gú)

gú - gid2 to spy

gú - gur to gather together, assemble, pile up, stock up, pack full

gú-gur5(-ru(-uš)) - a5/du11 to trim, strip, cut off (Attinger, Eléments 519-523)

gú-haš back of the head, nape, mane (older reading gú-tar possibly correct in some contexts; cf. the loanword kutallu)

gú-haš - lá to dress the hair

gú - lá to lean over; to hang the head, submit; cf. gú ki- šè - lá to fall prostrate

gú - lá (with -da-), gú-da - lá to embrace

gú - si to gather, assemble

gú-si-a all, all together, assembled

gú - sè to devote oneself to

gú - šub to neglect

gú-TAR gú-haš

gú - zi to busy, occupy oneself with

voice, sound

gù - dé to speak, say, address; to summon, designate, call

gù - du11 to make noise, give voice, cry out; to chant (Attinger, Eléments 526-536)

gù - dúb to shout, cry, scream

 

gù - è to emit a cry, sound; to roar

gù-nun - du11 to make a loud noise, to cry out loudly

gù-nun-di (that which is) making a loud noise

gù - ra(h) to roar, yell, cry out (šasû)

gù - šúm to repeat, echo

4

gu ku6 marsh-carp (arsuppu) (better eštubku6?) gu4(dr), gud(r) bull, ox; cattle

gu4-alim bison bull

gu4-ĝiš yoked ox, work-ox (OB and later: ox older than 3 years)

gu4-si-dili battering-ram (Sjöberg, AV Klein 296)

gu7 (conventionally read ) to eat; to have the use of; to consume (by some means)

gu4-ud to jump, dance, prance

gub to stand, stand open, make stand, station; to erect, plant; to serve, be on duty, assist; in phrases igi PN+ak+a - gub, igi-PRO+a - gub to be at someone's disposal, service. Plural forms: su8(g), šu4(g) (Thomsen, Sumerian Language p. 134)

gúb(LI)-ba pure (ellu) (Yuhong, NABU 1990/3, 86); cf. a-gúb-ba lustration water, holy water

gùb(-bu), gùbu, gáb, ga-ba left, left side (cf. á-gùb- bu)

gud(r) → gu4(dr) gùd nest

gùd - ús to build a nest

gudu4(g) (an ordinary kind of priest, conventionally translated 'lustration' or 'purification' priest) (the older rdg. gúda is still seen) (pašīšu)

na4gug carnelian

gúg sweet cake

gukkal kun-gal) (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 51)

gul, gu-ul to destroy

gul, gu-ul to add, augment, make great(er) (verbal by- form of gal)

GUL.BU (a tree and its wood; some connect with Akk.

dulbu plane tree) (Powell, BSA 6, 112f.)

gum, kum (read naĝx/naĝa4 in some meanings) to crush, pulverize, smash, beat to pieces (cf. gaz)

gùn, gùnu to be dappled, spotted, mottled, (multi)colored, colorful, decorated with colorful materials (cf. še-gu-nu) Sign is REC 34. See Steinkeller, BSA 8, 68 n. 103 for the gùn/dar vs. si4 sign contrast.)

gùn, gùn-na, gùn-gùn (multi)colored, dappled variegated, speckled

gur, gur4 to turn, go around; to turn away; to return; to roll

gur gur4

gur "kor" (a capacity measure = 30 bán = 300 silà = ca. 250 liters in Ur III and OB)

gur-saĝ-ĝál (a Lagash I capacity measure = 4 ul = 144

silà = ca. 121 liters)

gúr gam

gùr to bear, carry; to be clad with

gur4, kur4, gur to be thick, enlarged, swollen; to be proud, (self-)important; to fatten (animals)

gur4(-ra) fat, fattened, thick; proud

gur4 → gur

gur4-gur4, gur8-gur8 amphora (for beer) (Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Texts p. 53f.; Powell, RLA 7, 506f.; Selz, FAOS 15/2, 405)

gur5-ru(-uš), gùruš, gú-guru5 - du11 to strip away, cut off (kasāmu), tear to pieces; to despoil; adj. gur5-a stripped away (Attinger, Eléments 519-525)

 

gur5-ru-uš/gùruš - búr to bear the teeth/fangs, gnash the teeth (Civil, AV Biggs 28) (qarāšu)

gur7, guru7 grain store, granary; grain-heap (as a measure); heap, pile (now read kara6 in this meaning by Marchesi, LUMMA 111 + n. 569)

urudugur10 sickle (cf. še - gur10 to harvest grain)

gurud(NUN-tenû.KI) to throw

gurum (gúr), gur to bend, bow down, crouch; to lay low, kill (older reading gam)

gurúm kur7

gurun fruit; fruitfulness, ripeness, lusciousness, abundance (cf. gi-rin flower) (Civil, AV Biggs 25)

*guškin (obsolete rdg. of → kù-sig17)

gušurx(GIŠ.RAB.GAL) great clamp (for immobilizing enemies/miscreants, poetic; see Civil, AV Hallo 43 and cf. gišrab)

Ĝ

ĝá shed, barn, enclosure (or the like)

ĝá → ĝar

ĜÁ-dub-ba (a high-ranking official in civil and temple administrations) (šandabakku) (Sjöberg, AV Limet 133)

26

ĝá-e, ĝe26-e I (= ego) (Krecher, AV Matouš II 39 suggests reading ĝex(GÁ.E), likewise zex(ZA.E); alternatively perhaps ĝe e) (Emesal mà-e or me-e)

ĝá-la - dag/tag4 to stop, leave off work, cease; cf. ĝá-la nu-dag-ge (that which) is unceasing, incessant

ĝá-nu (i.e. ĝe26-nu) → du/ ĝen (ventive imperative)

ĝá-ra → ĝar

ĝál to exist, be present; to cause to be, produce, provide; to be in the care or possession of (-da-)

ĝál - tag4 to open (often elliptically just ĝál in imperatives)

ĝalga thought, mind, understanding; counsel

ĝanba market price, value

ĝanun, ĝá-nun storehouse, warehouse

ĝar to put, place, set, situate; to set up, establish, institute; to put down, restrain, oppress, stop; to set aside; to plate, inlay. Imperf. form: ĝá-ĝá. Based on Proto-Ea, Civil now distinguishes two roots, ĝar "put" and gar "pile up(?)". The Ur III writings or glosses ĝá- ar or ĝá-ra make the choice of the former explicit; the latter can be seen in such phrases as nì-ga-ra "property" or saĝ-nì-ga-ra "capital," where ga is currently read gur11.

ĜAR.DU → nindan

ĝarza (divine) rite, ordinance (cf. biluda)

ĝen ordinary (quality)

ĝen, ĝe26(n) → du

ĝéš(d) sixty (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187; Edzard, AV Klein 106) (cf. ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da)

ĝéš-u seventy; six hundred (Edzard, AV Klein 106)

ĝešpa(ĜIŠ.ŠUB) javelin (conventionally "throw- stick") (reading uncertain, cf. gišilar)

ĝeštin grape; wine(?) (Badler, BaM 27 (1996) 42 notes: “appears on plant and fruit lists, not in contexts that can definitely be translated as a grape liquid”) See also → tin 'wine'.

ĝeštin-bil-lá vinegar (lit. spoiled wine, see pe-el-lá)

ĝeštin-HÁD raisin (read probably -àh)

ĝeštu(g)1-3 ear; intelligence, mind, understanding, reason

ĝéštu(g) - a5 to listen to, pay attention to

ĝéštu-bad wide wisdom

ĝéštu - ĝar to pay attention to, pay heed to, listen to

 

ĝéštu - gub to decide to do, plan ĝi6 night (see also gíg and ku10) ĝi6-MAŠ → ĝi6-sa9

ĝi6-pàr, ĝi6-par4, OS ĝiparx (KISAL) residence of the high priest(ess) (Krebernik & Steinkeller, ZA 75, 46; Steinkeller, Priests and Officials (1996) 109f.)

ĝi6-sa9(MAŠ) midnightţ

ĝi6-ù-na, ĝi6-un-na midnight, night

gišĝidri, ĝidru scepter

ĝin → du

ĝír to flash (cf. nim - ĝír) ĝír, ĝíri knife, dagger ĝír(-tab) scorpion

ĝír-lá butcher

ĝìr, ĝìri (also ĝír in Gudea) foot; path, way; conveying/ routing official, "via" (in Ur III administrative texts, cf. Steinkeller, JESHO 24, 117 n. 20; Owen, JNES 33, 174 ad 91:7)

ĝìr - dab5 to take the road, follow the path

ĝìr - du11 to use the foot (hapax in Gilgameš and Enkidu 165f.) (Attinger, Eléments 537)

ĝìr - ĝar to step, tread upon; to prepare the way, make possible

ĝìr - gub to step in/into, set foot on/in; to stand there

ĝìr-KIN - du11 → ĝìri-sag11 - du11

ĝìr-kúr - dab5 to take a wrong path, an unfamiliar path; to leave, abandon

ĝìr-lam (a small basket or container for fruits, eggs, fish) (Landsberger, Date Palm 37; Attinger, AV Schretter 70)

ĝìr-pad-rá bone

ĝìr-saga11(KIN) - du11 to trample under foot, crush (reading secured by syllabic -sa-ga in Shulgi X 88; see Attinger, Eléments 538-540)

ĝìr-sè-ga domestic servant, menial

ĝìri - ús to step on, tread on

ĝìri - zé-er to slip

ĝiskim sign, mark; signal (Ur III) (Civil, AuOr 8, 110 and AV W. Lambert 109)

ĝiskim-ti trust, trusted

ĝissu(n) (ĝizzu(n)) shade, shadow; protection (reading with /ĝ/ is not completely secure, see Krecher AV Matouš II 46f.)

ĝiš tree; wood, timber, piece of wood, log; yoke (some read ĝeš)

ĝiš - bar → ka-aš - bar

ĝiš-búr snare, trap

ĝiš - dù to bring an offering (Sjöberg, AV Limet 139) ĝiš-gana, ĝiš-gan-na wooden pestle; (door) bolt, bar ĝiš-gaz pestle (cf. gišnàga(GAZ) mortar)

ĝiš-gi canebrake, reed thicket

ĝiš-gi-na, ĝiš-gin7(-na) warp-beam of a loom; (a writing for ĝiš-gana)

ĝiš-gi4-ĝál antiphon(?) (an OB hymn rubric)

ĝiš-gíd-da spear, lance (Römer, AfO 40/41, 24-28)

ĝiš-gú neckstock (cf. gú ĝiš - ĝar/ĝál)

ĝiš-gù-di (or gišgù-di ?) lute(?); musical instrument in general(?)

ĝiš-ĝìr foot fetters (Molina, JNES 63, 13 + n. 93) (kurşû)

ĝiš-hé firmament, vault of heaven

 

ĝiš - hur to incise, draw, make a plan or drawing

ĝiš-hur drawing, plan; divine design ĝiš-ká-na(-k) door-frame (giškanakku) ĝiš - kéš to dam, block a watercourse ĝiš-kéš-da wier, dam

ĝiš-kíĝ-ti handiwork; craftsman

ĝiš-nú or gišgešnù(NÚ) bed (1st reading with ePSD, 2nd following Mittermayer & Attinger, Altbabylon- ische Zeichenliste No. 364, with Proto-Ea 843.

Conventional reading is giš, but the word occurs with and without determinative, for example DP 490 i 1-2, ii 1, iv 5; DP 427 i 1-3 (OS), BiOr 42, 20 (Ur III). Cf.

Steinkeller, OrAnt 19, 79 n. 1.)

ĝiš-nu11 → ĝišnux(NU11), ĝišĝišnux

x

na4ĝiš-nu11-gal, na4nu11-gal alabaster (alternative rdgs. include ĝišnux(NU11), ĝišĝišnux , ĝišĝišnu gal) (see Veldhuis, Education 20f. ; Marchesi, SEL 16, 10 + n. 29)

ĝiš - ra to strike, hit, beat upon; to thresh

ĝiš-rín balance, scales (gišrinnu)

ĜIŠ.RU → ĝešpa, gišilar ĝiš-šu manacles, handcuffs GIŠ.ŠUB → gišilar

ĝiš - šub to cast lots ĝiš-šub(-ba) lot; share ĝiš - tag to sacrifice

ĝiš - tuku to listen to, hear; to heed, obey

ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.

ĝiš-ùr (ePSD now reads ĝišĝušur) roof beam, rafter (>

gušūru)

ĝiš-zi(-da) (side) wall (Powell, BSA 6, 112, argues against standard reading iz-zi, q.v.; perhaps two different words?)

ĝìš, ĝiš penis

ĝìš - dù to "insert the penis," copulate, mate

ĝìš - du11 to "do the penis," copulate

ĝišbun, ĝišbunx(KI.KAŠ) banquet, feast, party

ĝišgal (astral) station(?) (manzāzu) (cf. Lugale I 24)

gišĝišimmar → gišnimbar

ĝišnux(NU11), ĝišĝišnux (or ĝiš-nu11) light (nūru); alabaster (Marchesi, SEL 16, 10)

ĝitlam, nitadam(MI2.US2.DAM) husband; spouse (PSD reads munus-nita-dam; ePSD prefers ĝitlam) (ES: mu-ud-na)

ĝizzal attention

ĝizzal - a5 to pay attention to, attend, heed

ĝuruš (young) man; able man, adult male worker, laborer (Civil, AV Biggs); male serf (Maiocchi, CUSAS 13, 36) (eţlu)

H

ha-la share, portion (see hal)

ha-lam to be lost, forgotten; to destroy, annihilate, obliterate (Emesal gel-le-èĝ) (Civil, AV Biggs 19) (halāqu)

ha(z), ha-za, ha-ha(-za) to hold fast to, retain; to grasp, understand

gišha-lu-úb oak(?) (cf. PSD B 88)

ha-luh hu-luh

gišha-šu-úr (a type of cypress)

ha-za-núm mayor

 

uruduha-zi(-in) axe

habrud(a) (wr. LAGARxU, DU6xU, KIxU) hole, burrow (hurru) (Yuhong, AV Klein 374-384) .

hád (cultically) pure (Foxvog, JCS 46, 12-14)

HÁD dry, dried (reading probably àh) (see Foxvog, JCS 46, 13 n. 7)

hal, ha(l), hal-ha, ha-la to divide, apportion, allot

hal-hal fast-flowing

har, har-har ring, bracelet; coil, spiral

HAR-gud → mur-gu4

gišhar-har (a stringed instrument)

HAR-ra → ur5(-ra)

har-ra-an road, highway (Civil, AV Biggs 19) (harrānu)

HAR-tud (OS) (a kind of domestic servant) (read probably àr-dú; see also ìr)

harub(DAG+KISIM5xU2.GIR2) carob

haš, ha-aš to cut, split open (Civil, AV Sigrist 42) haš(-a) (OS haš-ša4) broken, crippled (limb) haš4, háš thigh

gišhašhur apple (tree, wood, fruit) (Steinkeller, Third- Millennium Texts p. 57)

hé-àm, hé-a Let it be (so)! (interjection, verbal form, and substantive; cf. hé-àm - du11 to accede to, approve)

hé-du7 distinguished (in appearance), ornament

HE2-du7 (read perhaps gan-du7) architrave

hé-ĝál abundance, prosperity

hé-nun, hi-nun abundant, luxuriant; abundance

hi to mix

hi-li (female) sexual charm, allure, appeal; ripeness, physical prime; luxuriance; wig

gišHU (In Gudea Statue E: a container, or an Akk. loan is-hu "string" of fruits?); (Bauer, AV Klein 27 suggests a "rack" or "frame")

hu-luh. huluh, ha-luh to tremble, be afraid; to be fearsome; to scare, frighten (Sjöberg, AV Klein 300 +

n. 14; Civil, AV Biggs 28)

HU-ri(2)-in u11-ri-in

hu-ru(-um) dolt, bungler, idiot, inferior

húb, hub to heap up; to smite, destroy (in this meaning better reading is tu11, tu10)

húb - sar to run

huĝ (still regularly written hun) to hire; to install in office; to be calm, soothed, quieted; to be well- disposed toward

hul to ruin, damage, destroy

hul(-a) evil, bad; adv. evilly

hul-bé, hul-bi-šè evilly, miserably

hul-ĝál evil, evildoer hul - gig to hate, dislike hul-gig hatred, hostility

hul - ti to dwell in wretchedness; to be spoiled

HÚLmušen → bibramušen

húl to rejoice, delight in, be happy

húl(-la) happy, joyous; joy

húl-bi-šè, húl-la-bé, húl-la-e happily, joyfully

hun → huĝ

hur to scratch; to incise, draw

 

hur, hur-ru-um hole in the ground, cave (Civil, JNES 31, 385)

HUR → àr, har, kikken, mur, ur5 hur-ru-um cave

hur-saĝ mountain range, highlands, foothills, mountains (Steinkeller, AV Biggs 223-232)

hur-saĝ-galam-ma stepped, storied mountain (the ziggurrat in Ur or Nippur) (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 331- 332)

huš fierce, furious, terrifying, terrible; fiery, red-yellow

I

i, i-i (by-form of è) to sprout, come forth; to praise

i-bí, ì-bí smoke (qutru)

úi-li-nu-uš (a plant)

i-lu cry; wail, lament; song

i-lu - du11 to perform, intone an i-lu (cf. ulù-di lament singer) (Attinger, Eléments 555-563)

i-lu-lam-ma (herder's) work-song

i-lu-šà-ga heart-felt song

i-ne-eš → ì-ne-éš

giši/ì-ri9-na root

i-si-iš laughter, delight; derisive laughter, derision; wailing, grief (J.G. Westenholz, AV Klein 361)

i-si-iš - ĝar to afflict with grief, deride(?)

i-si-iš - lá to be full of laughter, delight; to suffer derision; to be be afflicted with worries (Krecher, Sumerische Kultlyrik 89ff.)

i-ti → iti6

i-dutu cry or appeal for justice (Steiner, AOAT 253, 407-410)

i-zi (flood-)wave, swells (Heimpel, RlA 9, 153f.; Alster, AV Klein 6)

i-zi, iz-zi wall (of a building); fence (cf. ĝiš-zi)

ì, ìa oil; fat, tallow; butter

ì-áb-a butterfat

ì-bí-za financial loss

ì-du10(-ga) fine, sweet-smelling oil

ì-gi4-in-zu, igi-zu as if, as though (but cf. Alster ASJ 9, 34)

ì-ĝiš vegetable oil; sesame oil

ì-hi-nun-na precious oil

ì-ir-a perfumed, scented oil

ì-li fine(st) oil

ì-ne-éš/eš, i-ne-éš, ne-éš (ne-šè), e-ne-éš now, finally (Sjöberg, JCS 25, 131)

ì-nun(-na) (clarified) butter, ghee (Stol, BSA 7, 101- 103, RlA 8, 197)

(lú)ì-rá-rá perfumer, ointment mixer (muraqqû)

ì-šáh pork fat, lard

ì-šim aromatic oil, perfumed oil

ì-šub gišù-šub ì-ti → iti6

ì-udu sheep-fat, tallow (ePSD now reads libx) (lipû)

i7(d) (íd) river, canal, channel

i7-ki-sur-ra(-k) boundary canal

i7-lú-ru-gú ordeal-river (often divinized)

 

ía, í five (Edzard, AV Klein 101)

ib → eb, ub

íb waist, hips, loins íb anger, rage, fury íb-lá belt

-íb/ib-ra-aš → -braš ibila, i-bí-la heir i7idigna the Tigris

idim spring, underground waters

idim fierce, wild

gišig door

igi eye; sight, vision, view; face, countenance; front

igi-a - gub → gub

igi-a - sa6 to be favored, pleasing in the eyes of someone.

igi - bar to look at, gaze at, regard (Krecher, AV Kutscher 108-111)

igi(-šè) - du to go at the fore, precede

igi-du one who precedes, goes at the fore, harbinger, herald(?) (ālik mahri) (cf. palil and igištu)

IGI.DU → igištu

igi - du8 to see, look at; to experience

igi-ésir (a kind of bitumen, perhaps "surface crude bitumen") (pan ittî) (Civil, NABU 1989/62)

igi - ĝál to see, look upon, look into; to comprehend

igi-ĝál outlook, view; comprehension, intelligence, wisdom; wise person

igi - ĝar to regard, gaze at; to confront, face

IGI.GAR → kur7

igi - gid2 to look angrily at (nekelmû)

igi - íl to raise the eyes toward, look towards, regard

igi - kár to inspect, examine (Steinkeller, ASJ 4 (1982) 149-151)

igi - lib/lib4(IGI) to be sleepless

igi-niĝin-na-ka in the twinkle of an eye

igi-nim upper (land); above

igi-nu-du8 (in Pre-Sarg. Lagash, a class of menial workers who could be bought and sold)

igi-NUM-ĝál (a fraction, e.g. igi-3-ĝál one third)

igi - ri to set eyes upon, gaze at

igi - saĝ5(LAK 159)/zàĝ(ŠID) to examine, check; to select (nasāqu, bêru) (Proto Ea 557)

igi - sè(g) to look at, inspect

igi-šè before, in(to) the presence of; often in the phrases igi PN-ak-šè or igi-PRONOUN-šè

igi-te-en meshes of a net

igi-tur - gíd to sneer at, distain

igi-zu → i-gi4-in-zu

igištu(IGI.DU) foremost (ašarēduigi-šè-du)

iku (an area measure = 1/18 bùr = 100 sar = ca. 3,528 sq. meters)

íl v. to lift, raise, bear, carry; to bear (fig.), endure; n. carrier, porter

ÍL(-ĝá) → ga6(ĝ)

gišíldag poplar

íldu(m)(IGI.NAGAR.BU) clan

 

gišilar(ŠUB), illar, illuru throw-stick, spear, or javelin (?) (see Römer, AfO 40/41, 32-38) (cf. gišĝešpa)

íldag, ildag4 poplar(?) (ildakku, adaru)

ilimmu  nine  (Edzard, AV Klein 103)

im clay, earth (as building material); tablet

im wind (can also be read → tum9, tumu, tu15(m)) im rain (probably to be read šeg7)

im(-ma) previous year (in OS; later written mu-im- ma, cf. šaddagda)

IM.A rainstorm(?) (see Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma p. 222)

im-babbar, im-bábbar gypsum (gaşşu)

im-dub → in-dub

im-dù-a, im-du8-a mud-brick wall, adobe wall (pitiqtu) (cf. Sallaberger, Töpfer p. 12; Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 172))

im-du8 dew

IM.DUGUD → muru9 IM.DUGUDmušen → anzumušen

im-gíd-da long tablet, one-column tablet

IM.MImušen → ánzumušen

im-mir/mer (or better tum9-mir) north wind

im-ri-a, im-ru-a clan, family, kin (Selz, AV Schretter 584, suggests reading ní-ri/ru-a)

im-šu(-k) "hand-tablet" (a type of tablet or writing exercise, a paragraph or extract?) (Civil, AV Birot 75)

im-šu-rin(-na) oven; brazier(?)

im-tuku4 buffeting wind

im-u18-lu, im-ulù south wind

ím strange, alien, other

imĝaĝa1-3 → ZÍZ.AN

imin seven; "many, all" (poetic) (Edzard, AV Klein 102f., now reads umin)

in straw, chaff (cf. in-nu)

in insult, taunt, invective (pištu)

in - a5 to insult, abuse

in-dì(TI), in-di road, course, way

in-dub(-ba), im-dub (heap of earth serving as a boundary marker) (substantivized verbal form) (Sjöberg, Or 39 [1970] 81) (pilku)

in - dub to define a district (probably a back-formation from in-dub) (palāku)

in(-šè) - dúb to hurl (as) an insult, insult

in-nin(9) lady, mistress

in-nu, in-u straw (cf. in) in-nu-ha (a kind of barley)

dinanna(-k) goddess of passion, love and war, city- goddess of Uruk (reading dinana has become common,

but Attinger, NABU 2007/37, favors the traditional reading with double /n/ )

 

inim-ĝar legal claim, complaint; oracular utterance (in this meaning perhaps read i5-ĝar > Akk. egirrû)

inim - gi(n) to confirm, make firm, guarantee

inim - gi4 to answer, repond; to revoke

inim-inim-ma incantation; counsel(?) (cf. Cooper ad

Curse of Agade 30 & 70)

inim - kúr to (try to) alter the words; to vindicate, go back to court concerning

inim-ma - sè(g) to inspire, encourage(?); to put into words or concepts, plan out ( Jacobsen, JCS 41, 85 n. 26); to imagine (Civil, AV Birot 75)

ir smell, scent, fragrance

ir-nun princely fragrance; perfume (cf. Ukg 4 x 11-13)

ir - si-im to smell, sniff

ír → ér

ìr, ir11, arad, árad male slave, servant. (a) Pre-Sarg. èr/ìr(NÍTA) or ir11(NÍTAxKUR) and àr-dú. (b) Sarg. àr-dú abandoned in favor of arad(NÍTA) or árad(NÍTAxKUR). (c) Sarg. and Ur III arad/árad and ìr/ir11 are all possible (Gelb, AV Diakonoff 82ff.) Some editors now prefer just ARAD or ÁRAD everywhere. (ardu)

ir7(KASKAL)mušen uršānu-dove (Sollberger, AfO

mušen

inim (or enim) word; command; matter, affair

inim - bal to exchange words, converse, have a dialogue; to interpret

inim - du11 to say, speak, tell, declare (Attinger, Eléments 490-501) Old syntax: 'to do words about (-a) something'. The verb also commonly occurs elliptically as du11 alone, while retaining the older dimensional

 

40/41 52f., Ur III Drehem); compare ir7-saĝ

pidgeon(?) (PSD A/2 195a)

iri(URU) → uru

irigal (or urugal) netherworld; grave (poetic)

gišísimu, ìsimu sprout, shoot

iš(i) sand dune (bāşu); (previously: mountain,

 

wild

marking in the verbal chain.

inim-ĝál-la legal claim (OB)

inim - ĝar to put a matter (to someone, for judgment), raise a legal claim, sue, litigate

 

mountainous country) (Steinkeller, AV Biggs 219-222)

išib āšipu) diškur god of rain, patron of Karkara iti6(UD.dNANNA), ì-ti, i-ti moonlight

itima(-k), itim-ma (or itimama) dark chamber, bedchamber, cella

itu(d) or iti(d) month; cf. itu-da monthly

iz-zi → i-zi izi fire

izi - bar7 to blaze

izi-bar7-bar7-ra blazing fire

izi-ĝar torch

izi - lá to light a fire; to refine, purify with fire (?) (Bauer, AfO 40/41, 95) (cf. gi-izi-lá torch)

izi - mú to light a fire

izi - ri to set fire to

izi - šúm (also sè(g)?) to set fire to

izi - te(n) to extinguish a fire

K

ka(k), ka(g) mouth; opening; origin, beginning, inception (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for k/g refs.)

ka-al(-ak) excavation, brickmaking pit (> kalakku) (Heimpel, JNES 46, 208)

ka-aš(-bar) (divine) decision

ka-aš(-bar) - bar, ga-eš8 - bar, giš - bar to decide, render a (divine) verdict

ka - ba to open the mouth; to talk, speak (cf. Krecher, AV Kutscher II 117f.)

ka - du8 to open wide the mouth, roar

ka-guru7(-k) granary superintendant, head grain stores keeper (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 199f.)

ka-gáraš-a catastrophe, annihilation (pî karašîm)

 

KA - kéš to put together, collect, muster, organize, form

KA-kešda contingent, group, collection

ka-mè opening, beginning of battle

ka - si-il to graze

ka-tab lid, cover

KA-tar - si-il to extol, sing the praises of, proclaim the glory of (for the meaning of the verb compare perhaps ka-ta-ar-zu he-si-li-im CT 44, 14:33')

ka-téš unity; unified, of one mind

ka-téš-a - sè(g) to unify

ka-téš-a sè-ga unanimous, harmonious

ká(n) gate (read perhaps ákan/kan4; see Attinger ZA 88, 182) (cf. ĝiš-ká-na)

KÁ.GAL → abul

5

ka5-a (some now read ka a) fox

káb - du11 to measure ( with a container); to verify, test, check (Attinger, Eléments 572-576; Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 153-163; cf. latāku)

káb-du11-ga (a kind of jar) (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 160-162); "geeichtes Gefäß" (Sallaberger, Töpfer p. 102)

kadra(NÌ.ŠÀ.A), kádra(NÌ.ŠÀ) present (to a superior), offering (cf. Attinger, ZA 87, 115, who reads kádraa) (Sjöberg, Or 39, 81)

kak → gag

KAL → rib, sig15, sun7

kal to be precious, dear, valuable

kal(-la) precious; kal-kal(-la) very precious

kala(g) (kalag), kal-la(-g) to be strong, mighty; to strengthen, mend

kal-ga (or kalag-ga) strong, mighty; hard (/kalag+a/

> /kalga/ like /uzud+a/ > /uzda/)

kalam country, nation (normally referring to Sumer, see Jacobsen, AfO 26, 9)

kankal(KI.KAL) bare, fallow ground

kar quay, wharf; market

kar to flee, escape; to take away, remove, strip off; to steal

kar-KID, (OS kar-kid3) conventionally "prostitute," but now understood as a class of women not living under male authority, an independent woman (harimtu) (Assante, UF 30, 5-97; cf. Glassner, RAI 47, 151ff.)

kár to be bright, shining; to light up, flare up; to provoke, incite (cf. nu-kár-kár-dè without provocation) Wr. GANA2 (non-tenû) in OS.

kara (GURU ) granary, grain store, grain heap (for

 

e.g. ki PN-ak-šè "to PN's location > to PN," ki-bi-ta

"from there," ki-ba "here"

KI.A → ki-duru5, peš10

ki-a-naĝ place of (funerary) libations

ki(g) - áĝ to love

ki-ba - ĝar to replace, substitute, exchange

ki-bala, ki-bal-a rebellious, rebel land

ki-bé - gi4, ki-bi-šè - gi4 to return to its original state, restore

ki-bíl-lá hot, scorched place; ki-bíl-bíl-lá hottest place

ki-búr solution (to a riddle)

ki - dar to break through the ground, emerge from the earth (cf. ki-in-dar crevice)

6                      7

reading see Marchesi, LUMMA 111 + n. 569)

 

ki-dúr stool (ePSD) Cf. → ki-tuš residence

karadin → garadin

 

ki-duru5

 

damp ground, wet place (describing fields)

kaskal road, highway; caravan, expedition

7

KASKALmušen → ir mušen

kaš, kas beer

kaš-dé-a feast, banquet

kaš4 running, race; runner (also lú-kaš4-e)

kaš4/kas4 - du11 to run; to hasten (Attinger, Eléments 578-586)

kéš(d/r) to be bound, tied, joined; to be locked, closed, blocked, stopped, sealed. The root has a /d/ or /r/ Auslaut, and the full finite root may be kešedr; cf.

OBGT 12, 5: saĝ kéš-šè-ra-ab = kişşar and see Steinkeller, JNES 46, 57. The past participle is written kéš-da (kešdada) or kešda(KÉŠ). Cf. giškirid

ki place; ground, earth; (a term for the netherworld); place where (as relative pronoun); used before a GN to designate a state, e.g. ki Lagaški "the state of Lagaš"; used to express spatial ideas with PN's or pronouns,

 

(Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 69)

ki-e-ne-di, ki-a-ne-di game, play, dance

KI.E.NE.DI.dINANNA → éšemen

ki-en-gi(r), ki-in-gi(r) Sumer (Steinkeller, AV Klein 308-309, analyzes as ki-engi(r) with pronunciation [ki- ngir] (cf. gi7(r)) Perhaps better ki-en-ge(r).

ki-en-gi ki-uri Sumer and Akkad

ki-gal the netherworld; (a term for foundation)

ki-gub(-ba) station, position, standing; constellation ki - ĝar to (firmly) found (buildings), to settle (people) ki-ĝar grounds, settled place

ki-hul funeral (rites)

ki - hur to scratch, paw at the ground

ki-in-dar crevice (nigişşu)

KI.KAL → kankal ki-lá weight

ki-lul-la treacherous, dangerous place

ki-mah grave, cemetery

ki-nú sleeping quarters, resting place, camp; bed

ki-sá (Ur III ki-sá-a) platform (so Suter, ZA 87, 6 in a discussion of "square" in Gudea. She finds no direct lexical proof for conventional translation "supporting or retaining wall." (kisû). Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 171 translates "foundation terrace.")

ki-sa6-ga happy place; happiness ki-sè-ga funeral offerings, rites ki-si-ga quiet, silent place

ki-sikil pure place; young woman, maiden

ki - su-ub to kiss the ground, make obeisance (periphrastic: ki-su-ub - a5)

ki-su7(r), ki-sura12 threshing-floor (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 94)

ki-sum-ma, ki-šúm-ma onion plot (Prentice, AV Black 256ff.)

ki-sur-ra boundary, border, place of demarcation; demarcated area, territory (var. ki-surx(EREN2)-ra in the OS royal inscription Ukg 16)

ki-šár(-ra) horizon; everywhere

ki-še-er - tuku to know moderation, have a limit or barrier; to be off-limits (Civil, RAI 41 = BBVO 18, 260)

ki-šú finale, coda, end (of a song)

ki - tag to lay, put, leave on the ground; to plant; to found (cf. tag4)

ki - túm to bury

ki-túm grave

 

ki - tuš to establish, take up residence

ki-tuš seat, residence, dwelling place, habitation

ki-u4-ba formerly, once when, "once upon a time"

KI.UD → kislah

ki-ul primeval place

ki-ulutin (a mythical place of original creation)

ki-ùr terrace (in a temple complex, especially that of Nippur - a site of divine assemblies)

ki-uri(ki) the state Akkad

ki(-a/e) - ús to (make) lie on the ground, touch, press the ground; to found, ground, make fast; to compact (earth), pack densely, pile up/accumulate (by wind) (Steinkeller, AV Biggs 226 n. 19)

ki-ús dais(?), cultic seat(?)

ki-ús-sa firmly grounded, founded

ki - za to prostrate oneself, make obeisance

ki-za obeisance, homage

ki-za - túm to refuse obeisance KIB (dedicatory) clay nail gikid reed mat

kíd, kìr to pinch off, cut off

kìd-kìd-da ritual

kíĝ (kin) to seek, search out

kíĝ (kin) work, job; duties (Civil, AV Hallo 76) (kíĝ is now the preferred writing, but the word is still seen written with a final /n/ like hun)

kíĝ - a5 to perform work, labor kíĝ - du11 to perform work, labor kíĝ-ĝá skilled

kíĝ - gi4 to send a message

(lú)kíĝ-gi4-a messenger, envoy; omen, as in Ur III sila4 kíĝ-gi4-a omen-lamb (Heimpel, BSA 7, 132f.)

kíĝ-nim (cultic) morning meal, service

kíĝ-sig (cultic) afternoon meal, service

kikkin(HAR), kíkkin(HAR.HAR) millstone, grinding slab Cf. géme-kikkin grinder, miller (some read kín- kín or kinkinx, others read àr-àr (OB); vars. kikken, na4kikkin-na (see Civil, AuOr Suppl. 22, p. 131f.)

kìlib(-ba) all; kìlib-ba-bi every one of them, all of them

kin → kíĝ

kin-gal leader, expert; dining hall

kinda, kindagal, (kínda in OS) barber; slave marker (gallābu)

kìr → kíd

kìri, kir4 hyena (būşu) kìri, kir4 nose, muzzle kìri-dab5/dab groom

kìri šu - ĝál to show reverence, make the gesture of reverence (the hand held up to the nose), make obeisance; periphrastic: kìri-šu-ĝál - a5

kìri-zal → giri17-zal

giškirid(KEŠDA) hair clasp (Farber, AV Reiner (1987) 96-99) (kirissu)

kisal courtyard

kisal-luh courtyard sweeper

kislah(KI.ZALAG) empty, uncultivated land, vacant lot

(na4)kišib seal, seal impression; sealed document

kišib - ra to impress a seal

 

kiši8 ant

(giš)kišig(Ú.GIR2-gunû), (giš)kiši16 (a kind of acacia) (ašāgu) (Veldhuis, Education 170; Biggs, OIP 99, 69- 70). Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 298 now identifies as shok (= Arabic shauk), a thorny bush, prosopis farcta.

(gis>)kišig2(GÍR-gunû), (giš)kiši17 (giš)ád ku-li friend (ePSD now reads gu5-li)

ku-mul cumin(?)

ku-nu to come (a literary word)

kú → gu7

kù(g) (kug) to be sacred, holy; to sanctify

kù(g) holy, sacred; shining, bright, clean, pure (cf. Vanstiphout, AV Jacobsen II (2002) 259f.)

kù(g) (kug) silver

KU3.AN iron; (a tin-antimony alloy?) (amūtu) (Reiter, AOAT 249, 353-357; 384-388)

kù-babbar, also kù-bar6-bar6 (or -bábbar) (Ur III and earlier esp. in Lagaš texts) silver

kù-dím silversmith, goldsmith

kù-ĝál → gú-gal

kù-luh-ha refined, purified silver (Reiter, AOAT 89)

ku3-NE(-a) (a type of precious metal) (Reiter, AOAT 249, 85)

kù-sig17(GI) (kù-si22(GI)), kù-sí(g)(ZI) gold (the reading guškin is obsolete) (Civil, JCS 28, 183f.)

kù-sig17-huš red gold

kù-zu clever, experienced, expert

ku4(r) (kur9) to enter; to make enter, bring in; to become, turn into, be declared to be; to be made liable for (For a reading kux(dr) of the DU sign in OS and Ur III see Krecher, ZA 77, 7-21. Wr. LIL and ŠE+ŠU in Ur III) (Veldhuis, AV Sigrist 226-8)

ku5(dr), kud(r) to cut, cut off; to decide (verdicts)

ku5-da (kud-da) turtle, tortise

ku6 (kua) fish (Englund, BBVO 10, 227-230)

ku6-a-dé fresh fish ku6-izi smoked fish ku7(d), ku7-ku7 sweet

 

kur7 inspection (also read kurum7 or gúrum, written both IGI.ERÍN and IGI.GAR) (Civil, AV Biggs 28)

kur7/kurum7 - a5 to inspect

kurun, kúrun (a beer or wine) (karānu, kurunnu)

kurušda small-cattle breeder, animal fattener (some read gurušda or g/kurušta) (Civil, AV Biggs 29)

kuš skin, hide; leather

ku10(g), kukku5

 

black, dark; darkness (often

 

KUŠ.A.EDIN.LÁ → kušùmmu

reduplicated: ku10-ku10 or kúkku; see also gíg) (Civil, EBLA 1975-1985, 155 n. 32)

kux(dr) → ku4, túm kud(r) → ku5

kul handle (of a tool)

kum → gum

kúm v. to heat; adj. hot

kun tail; outlet, end of a river, canal

kun-zi-da canal storage basin, reservoir

giškun4-5, kun (syllabic wr.) stairs, ladder (simmiltu) (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 176) (ePSD reads kuĝ)

kúnga → anše-kúnga

kur mountain; foreign land; netherworld

kur-gal Great Mountain (standard epithet of Enlil)

 

kúš to be(come) tired, weary, exhausted; to be troubled; to sigh; to ponder, deliberate; to rest, relax, be calm, calmed, soothed

kùš cubit (a length measure = 1/6 gi = ca. 0.5 meter)

kùš mould

kuš7(SAHAR) (newest reading is šùš, possibly to be distinguished from a different occupational term sahar) equerry, groom, page, personal attendant (Beal, NABU 1992/2; Steinkeller, Sale Documents 180)

kúšuku6 shark (PSD B); turtle, tortise (Cohen, JCS 25, 203-210); crab or snapping turtle (ePSD)

L

la-ha-ma (a class of long-haired servants of the god Enki, residing in the Apsu)

la-la, a-la (male) prime, vigor, fullness, appeal, handsomeness (Sjöberg, Or 39, 75-77)

kur-gi mušen, kur-gi mušen (domesticated) goose(?) ( >

16                                (4)

Akk. kurkû) (Veldhuis, Education, 263f.)

kur-ku/ku4 torrent, waves (agû); triumph

kúr v. and adj. (to be) different, strange, foreign; (to be) hostile, inimical; to change, alter

kur4 → gur4 kur6 → šuku

 

lá(l) (lal) to hang, suspend; to spread, stretch out, extend; to weigh; to pay (in silver or other metals); to tie, bind, attach, gird, wrap; to harness, yoke; to wear, carry; to load (a pack animal); to diminish, decrease, reduce, refine

minus (in counting, accounting)

lá-NI arrears, deficit; surplus, remainder, difference (accounting and math.). Several readings have been suggested, lá-ì, lá-ìa or lá-ux; cf. Steinkeller, AuOr 2,

137-139; Snell, YNER 8, 228 . In OS Lagaš economic texts the term is written lá-a.

lag clod (of dirt)

lagab (massive) block, lump (upqu)

LAGAB gur4, kur4, lúgud, níĝin

lagar, lagal, lagarx(SAL.HÚB) "vizier," a high- ranking priest(ess) or official (Wiggermann, ZA 78, 225ff.; Civil, AV Biggs 20)

lagaski, lagaški the city and state of Lagash (see Attinger, NABU 2007/37 for final sibilant)

lah4-5 → túm

lahar ewe (Civil, AV Biggs 20) (lahru)

làl date syrup, sweet syrup, honey; adj. sweet (as honey) (cf. Zgoll, AOAT 246, 376)

làl-hur wax; model(?)

dlamma(r) (some still read dlama) female protective deity, good genie, "angel" (Heimpel, NABU 1994 p. 73)

lam → lum

gišlam almond

gišlam-gal pistachio (buţuttu)

gišle-um writing board(s) gišli juniper (burāšu) li(b) to be happy, glad

li-li-ìs kettledrum

libir v. & adj. (to be) old, lasting

lil foolish (> lillu fool, idiot)

líl air, wind; open air, outdoors, open country; nothing- ness; phantom (cf. eden-líl haunted steppe, lú-líl incubus > lilû) (George, AV Black 114-115)

 

limmu, limmu2/5 four (Edzard, AV Klein 101) lipiš (libiš) heart; strong emotion, anger, courage lipiš - bal to become angry

lipiš-tuku in anger, angrily

lirum physical strength, athletics; cf. lú-lirum athlete, wrestler

lu to be or make numerous or abundant, multiply (Akk.

mâdu, duššû, kamāru) (Steinkeller, SEL 1, 5ff.)

lu

lu(g) (lug), lu5(g) or lu5(k) before Ur III to live (referring to animals); to herd, pasture, tend (animals) (Akk. uzuzzu, rabāşu) The plural root is sig7 or se12 (see Steinkeller, SEL 1, 5ff., Third Millennium Texts 35, reading lukx or lugx) (see Attinger, ZA 95, 47f. for distribution of g/k )

lu(g), lu-gú to be twisted, crooked (zâru) (Michalowski, Lamentation p. 100; Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 175)

lu(-úb)nisi turnip(?); bean(?) (Akk. luppu)

lu-lim → lulim

person, man; someone; person in charge (Jacobsen, AV Kutscher 69ff. "boss"); the one who (relative pronoun) (Emesal mu-lu) Cf. lú-ùlu

lú-bappir, lú-bàppir (OS) brewer (cf. lunga) lú-bar-ra outsider, foreigner, stranger

lú-dun-a (OS) subordinate, one subordinated to (cf. Maiocchi, CUSAS 13, 239)

lú-érim(-du/ĝál) enemy

lú-éš-gíd surveyor

lú-gi-di-da flutist (Sjöberg, AV Limet 137)

lú-huĝ-ĝá hired man, hired worker; the constellation Aries

lú-igi-níĝin (an elite class of citizens in Lagaš I administrative texts)

lú-kar one (in charge) of a harbor district (Sjöberg, AV Limet 127 + n. 6)

lú-kar-ra fugitive, refugee

lú-kaš4-e runner (cf. kaš4 - du11)

lú-ki-inim-ma, lú-inim-ma witness

lú-kin-gi4-a messenger

lú-kúr(-ra) stranger, foreigner, enemy

lú-la-ga (an outlaw, perhaps a livestock rustler) (Heimpel, BSA 8. 106f.)

lú-lirum athlete, wrestler

lú-lul treacherous person, traitor

lú-mah (a high-ranking priest, the male counterpart to the ereš-diĝir priestess); (an ecstatic priest?) (see lumahhu, mahhû)

lú-na-me (or just na-me) no one, someone

lú-nì-zuh (or nì-zuh ?) thief

lú-nisi-ga vegetable gardener (cf. YOS 18, 115 iii 24) (lú-nisi in Lagaš I texts)

lú-túg-du8 → túg-du8 lú-u5 mounted courier

kušlu-úb leather bag (luppu)

7

lú-ùlu, lú-u18-lu (or lú-ùlululú-lú) ePSD now reads lú-lu (lu)

lú-ur5-ra lender, creditor; debt-collector (Oppenheim, Eames TT 6)

lú-uzug5-ga a sexually impure or unclean person

lú-zu-a, OS lú-su-a someone well known, acquaintance (also written elliptically just zu-a)

 

, lu to be(come) disturbed, stirred up, blurred, confused; to mix

lu5(g) → lu(g)

lub(-bi) (with wood or copper determinative) (a kind of axe) (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 149)

lugal king, master; owner

lúgud(-da) short, small (Civil, AV Biggs 29) luh to be clean; to clean, wash; to purify, refine luh-ha cleaned, refined

lukur (a kind of priestess); (a cloistered woman,

nadītu)

LUL → lu(g), nar

lul v. & adj. (to be) false, lying, deceitful, misleading, treacherous (opposite zi(d))

lul lie, falsehood; treachery, danger

lul-ba furtively, treacherously

lul(-da) - du11 to speak falsely, tell a lie (Attinger, Eléments 597f.)

lul-da, lul-du falsely (lul-da lul-du-a like niga

*nì-gu7-a)

lul-da - pà(d) to swear falsely

lulim, lu-lim stag

lum to be fecund, prolific, grow luxuriantly (by-form

lam)

(lú)lunga(3) (lumgi(3)) (wr. LÚ.ŠIM, ŠIMxNINDA, ŠIMxA, KASxNINDA) brewer The reading remains unclear (previously read lú-bappir(3) in early Lagaš texts), probably a genitive construction. (Steinkeller, Sales Documents 291)

M

gišMA → gišpèš

(giš)ma-(an-)si-um/ú grain sieve (nappītu); (a symbol of royalty, see CAD maššû B and Cooper, Curse of Agade p. 242)

ma-az, ma-ra-az (to be) abundant(?), joyful(?) (elēşu) (ePSD now translates "to swell") (often occurs together with hi-li)

ma-da country, land, district, territory (Limet, RA 72 (1978) 1-12)

ma-la(g) boy-friend, (girl-friend)

ma-mu(d), ma-mú(d) dream

ma-na "mina" (weight measure = 60 gín = 0.48 kg.)

gišma-nu (a kind of tree/wood used for cabinetry and fuel, perhaps cornal or willow(?) (e'ru) (Powell, BSA 6, 102f., Steinkeller, AOS 68, 91f.)

gima-sá(-ab) (a kind of basket) (Zgoll, AOAT 246, 372f.)

(giš)boat

má-addir ferry boat, hired boat

má-dù boat builder

má-gíd boat tow-man

má-GÍN, má-DÙN boat caulker, asphalter, ship- builder (Steinkeller, Sales documents 255)

má-gur8 deep-going boat, procession-boat; a boat- shaped pot stand

má-lah4 boat owner, skipper, boatman

túgma6 (conventional reading, perhaps better túgba13) (a fine divine or royal garment) (nalbašu)

MAH → šutur

mah v. and adj. (to be) high, chief (in status), lofty, exalted, august, majestic; to be great, large

mah-di one acting in an exalted, magnificent manner (tizqāru)

 

mar wagon (abbreviation for mar-gíd-da, Civil, NABU 1989/62)

gišmar spade, shovel

mar-tu (or mar-dú) Amorite; West(ern)

(im)mar-uru5/ru10(GUR8/TE) mighty storm, hurricane, tempest, west wind, storm wind (Eichler, AV Hallo 90- 94). Attinger, ZA 88, 182: marmarux. Cf. a-ma-ru(-k)

mar-uru5/ru10 → é-mar-uru5/ru10

mas-su, mas-sù leader, chief; councillor (massû)

maš one-half

maš → máš

maš-da-ri-a (OS, an obligatory offering or tax) (Selz, ASJ 17, 251-274 reads the root as /dri/)

maš-dà (mašda) gazelle (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 50)

maš-gaba(-k) offering(?) kid; (semi-weaned(?) kid, Steinkeller, BSA 8, 55) (for the genitive see sila4- gaba)

maš-gán tent; tent-ground, camp, settlement (maškanu)

máš, maš (male) goat; kid

máš, maš increase of a herd, yield; tax (Sarg.); interest (Ur III) (Steinkeller, JESHO 24, 139f.)

máš-anše herd, (wild) animals

máš-ĝi6(-k), maš-ĝi6 ominous dream (lit. "kid of the night")

máš-saĝ bellwether, leader

máš-šu-gíd(-gíd) haruspex, diviner

maškim commissioner, deputy, inspector, bailiff

me divine power, attribute, office

me silence, dumbness, daze

me, -m to be (copula)

me- where, in the phrases me-a where(in), me-ta/da

wherefrom, whence, me-šè whereto, whither

me-dím bodily members, features

me-lám divine radiance, brilliance, splendor, aura, halo (now read me-lem4, see Krecher, ZA 63 [1974] 199)

me-li-e-a Alas! Woe!

me-te, ní-te fitting, proper thing; ornament(?) (simtu) (Cunningham, Analysing Literary Sumerian 76f.)

me-te - ĝál to be fitting

me-te-na → ní-te-na

me-téš/te-eš - i-i to praise, extol

battle, war

men, OS men4 (a kind of crown or turban)

mes strong, vigorous youth, young man (Marchesi, Or 73, 191-3)

gišmes (a native tree/wood used to make furniture) (Van de Mieroop, BSA 6, 159f.) (mēsu)

mi-ri → mir

gišmi-rí-tum (a stringed instrument)

mi-tum → gišmitum mí → munus

mí - du11, mí-zi(-dè-eš) - du11 to treat carefully, gently; to take care of, provide for, cherish, nuture; to adorn, decorate; to flatter, praise, extol rightly (also with special verbal prefix i-ri-) (Attinger, Eléments 603- 618)

MÍ.ÚS.DAM → ĝitlam

MÍ.ÚS.SÁ son-in-law, brother-in-law (Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Texts 37-38; Sjöberg, AV Falkenstein 221-225.) Now often read mussa.

Cf. nì-MÍ.ÚS.SÁ

MÍ.ÚS.SÁ-tur son-in-law (Sjöberg, AV Falkenstein 225f.)

 

MÍ.ÚS.SÁmušen pelican or crane(?) (read gambi ?) (Veldhuis, Education 242-243)

mìn, min two (Edzard, AV Klein 100)

min-kam-ma-ka with a/the 2nd (something), for a/the second (time) (Marchesi, Or 68, 108-110)

mìn-na-ne-ne, mìn-a-bi the two of them, both of them mir, mi-ri, me-ri v. to be enraged; n. rage; adj. raging immir, immer → im-mir, tum9-mir

gišmitum(TUKUL.AN), mi-tum divine weapon, mace (also read mitta or midda; cf. mítum(TUKUL. BAD) and other similar writings) (miţţu)

mu name; fame; year; line (of writing)

mu NOUN-ak-šè, mu-PRONOUN-šè because of, in place of, instead of someone or something

mu-gub(-ba) assigned lines, writing exercise, model tablet

mu-im-ma (in the) previous year (wr. im-ma in OS)

mu-lu (Emesal form of )

mu - pà(d) to reveal, call the name, invoke, name someone (cf. mu lugal(-la) - pà(d) to swear by the king's name) (Sallaberger, AV Sigrist 159ff.)

mu(-šè) - sa4 to name, call as a name mu(-šè) - sar to write by name, inscribe mu-sar-ra inscription

mu-tuku famous, renowned

mu-ud-na → ĝitlam

mú(d) to grow (up, out), sprout; to ignite; to incite (Auslaut /d/, /r/ or /dr/? Cf. OS munu8-mú(d) maltster and Sarg. Adab lú gu4 mú-da cattle raiser)

mu4(r) to clothe oneself, dress, wear; to use, take, give as clothing or as cloth covering

mu7, mu7-mu7 incantation

mud blood

mud to create, engender, sire

mud5-me-ĝar joy, rejoicing (rīšātu)

muhaldim (muhaltim) cook, kitchen chief (nuhatimmu) (See Sjöberg, AV Limet 131f. for extended discussion.)

mul star, constellation

mul to shine, sparkle, glitter; to be radiant, radiate; to spread (branches, Urnamma EF 34), flower(?)

mun, mun4(SES) n. salt; adj. salty

munu8, munu3/4 malt

munu8-mú(d) maltster

munus woman, female (some read in certain contexts, but its relationship to munus is unclear)

mur lung(s); breast

mur-gu4 fodder (imrû)

murgu, múrgu back, backbone; shoulder

muru9(IM.DUGUD) cloud

murub4 middle (part), midsection; midst

muš snake, serpent

muš-ĝír 'dagger-snake' or 'scorpion-snake' (a mythical or literary serpent)

 

mušen bird

mušen-dù birdcatcher, fowler

N

na stone, boulder (cf. na4)

-na → a5

na-an-na besides

na-dè(IZI), na-de5 incense (qutrīnu) (Veldhuis, CDLI: CDLN 2003:003)

na - de5(g) a) to clarify, explain, instruct, advise; b) to purify (elēlu); c) to clear away/out, separate (animals from herds, especially dead animals); d) to clear out, cut (timber) See most recently Sallaberger, AV Klein 229-253; also Klein, AV Kutscher XVff.; Civil, AV Hallo 74. Many read the verb conventionally as ri(g); Selz, ASJ 17, 260-262, reads /dri/. See also de5(g).

na-gada herdsman, shepherd

na-ma-su → nu-mu-su

na-me someone, anyone; no one, nothing, none (usually ellipsis for lú-na-me or nì-na-me); cf. ki-na- me-šè to no other place, u4-na-me never

na - rú(DÙ) to erect a stele (read perhaps drú)

na-rú-a stele (some now read na-dù-a despite the Akk. loanword narû)

ná, gišná → nú, giš

muš-huš 'fierce snake' (a mythical or literary serpent, later a symbol of Marduk) (mušhuššu)

 

na4

 

precious stone (cf. na)

múš - búr to loosen the hairdo, let free the hair

mùš, múš countenance, appearance, aspect; halo, aura; (a kind of crown); temple base or emplacement (George, AV Black 113)

muš1-3 - túm to cease, have an end, stop (work) (Wilcke, Lugalbandaepos p. 130f.)

 

na4-àr grinding slab (Ur III) (some read na4-kikkin) (but cf. Civil, AuOr Suppl. 22, 132)

na4-šu(-k) stone hammer, pounder (Civil, AuOr Suppl. 22, 132f.)

na8 → naĝ

naĝ to drink, give to drink (reduplicated na8-na8)

naĝ-ku5 a side pond or water reservoir for flood control (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 133f.)

naĝa alkali-plant, soda; soap

naĝa-si-è sprouted alkali-plant

nàĝa, naĝa4 to grind, mill (cf. gaz, gum)

gišnàĝa mortar, hand-mill (OS, see Selz, FAOS 15/2 557; cf. ĝiš-gaz pestle)

nagar carpenter (Civil, AV Biggs 20) (naggāru)

nam being, state, 'that which is' (Krecher, ASJ 9, 86); fate (Zgoll, AOAT 246, 378f.) Cf. nam-bi-šè because of this; nam NOUN-ak-šè because of something; nam-ĝu10 'what is it to me?' (ironic)

nam-, nám- (abstract noun formative), 'office of'

nam-árad slavery

nam-dag → nam-tag

nam-du10-sa companionship, friendship

nam-dumu children (collective), childhood (abstract)

nam-érim (assertory) oath; evil

nam-érim - ku5 to swear a (declamatory, assertory) oath (perhaps strengthened with a curse) (Sallaberger, AV Sigrist 159ff.)

nam-ga-eš8 (foreign) trade

nam-gal greatness

nam-ĝuruš young men (collective); young manhood (abstract)

nam-kal-ga strength, might

nam - ku5 to curse

nam-lú-u18-lu, nam-lú-ùlu humanity, human beings, people, population

nam-lugal kingship

 

nam-mah greatness, majesty

nam-nar musician's craft, musicianship; music

nam-nin queenship

nam-nir-ĝál authority, sovereignty, royalty

nam-ra(-ak) booty, plunder nam-šeš brotherhood, fraternity nam-šita (a prayer or rite)

nam-šub incantation

nam-šul valorous youth(fulness)

nam-tag, nam-dag evil deed, sin, guilt

nam - tar to decide fate, determine destiny Cf. older syntax nam-šè - tar to decide ... as a fate

nam-tar fate, destiny nam-ti(l), nam-ti-il life nam-úš death

nam-zu knowledge, wisdom

dnamma primeval goddess of the sea, the mother of dEnki (previously read dnammu, see Frayne, Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods 1, p. 423, for full discussion and previous references)

dnanna(r) the moon god, patron of Ur

nar musician

ne → nè

NE → bar7, kúm, šeĝ6 Cf. also me-lám(NE) and zú - gir10(NE)

NE-NE → níĝin

ne, ne-en, ne-e this (one) (cf. ne-e = níĝ-e = an-[nu-ú]

Emesal Vocabulary III 157)

ne-éš → ì-ne-éš

ne-me, ne-meš these (annūtu) (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 221)

ne-mur ashes, hot embers (tumru)

ne - su-ub to kiss

nè, ne, nì strength, might, (military) force(s)

nesaĝ, ne-saĝ, nì-saĝ first fruits (offering); prime, foremost. The nesaĝ sign is LAK 159, distinguished from murub4 only through Ur III.

ni-is-ku finest, select (said of equids)

fear, fearsomeness (see major study by G. Cunning- ham in Analysing Literary Sumerian [2007] 70ff.)

self (especially with possessive pronouns, e.g. ní-bi- šè or ní-ba by itself); one's own (with pronouns, e.g. é ní-za your own house); character, nature(?) (cf. Shulgi B 10, 77) (Cunningham, Analysing Literary Sumerian [2007] 70ff.)

ní - búr to show off, make oneself important

ní - dúb to relax, rest

ní-gal great fearsomeness, awesomeness

ní(-gal) - gùr to be clad in (great) fearsomeness, awesomeness

ní gùr-ru clad in fearsomeness

ní me-lám fearsome brilliance (two divine attributes which often appear together as a hendiadys)

ní - ri to impose fear upon, oppress by fear, terrify, cloak in fearsomeness

ní silim-eš - du11 to boast

ní-su-ub crazy person; (an ecstatic?)

ní - te(ĝ) to grow afraid, be afraid of (-da-)

ní-te(ĝ) fear

ní - te(n), te-en to refresh oneself, cool oneself under

-ši-) something; to calm down, relax

 

ní-te self; cf. ní-te-né by himself, herself

ní-te-na(-k), me-te-na, mete(TE.ME)-na his or her own

ní - tuku to revere, respect, have fear of

ní-tuku reverent, respectful

(lú)ní-zuh thief (cf. nì-zuh-a theft)

nì(ĝ) (níĝ) thing; that which (impersonal relative pronoun); (abstract noun formative) Note that níĝ is now the preferred reading, presumably because lexical attestations for the short form come from later texts.

nì-á-zi(-ga) violent act (şēnu)

nì-ak-a accomplishment

nì-àr-ra groats

nì-ba allotment, portion; gift

nì-bún(KAxIM) turtle nì-buru14 harvest yield nì-dab5 appropriation

nì-dù-a (OS nì-dù) string of (dried) fruit (Pre- Sargonic, replaced by še-er-gu in Late Sargonic, see Civil, Or ns 56, 233ff.); a container for figs and apples (Postgate, BSA 3, 123-124)

nì-du7 a (theologically) fitting thing (The reading is conventional, but many now read nì-ul "primeval thing." Cf. nì-ul-lí-a in Ean 1 vi 6 and Urnamma 26 ii 1 and see J. Bauer, AV Klein 26f. and AfO 40/41, 94 with J. Cooper, followed by C. Suter, contra Falken- stein GSGL I 60 and Edzard, RIME 3/1. Compare the Lagaš I male PN nì-du7-pa-è, where du7 seems to make more sense than ul.)

nì-érim (or -ne-ru) evil (thing), fraudulent action

nì-GA(-r) possessions, goods, property (Until recently read nì-gur11, but see disc. s.v. ĝar. Michalowski, RAI 47, 418, takes as a loan from makkūru.)

nì-galam artfully wrought thing; artfulness

nì-gi-na truth, right; law; justice

nì-gig(-ga) interdicted thing, taboo; abomination, evil act; bane, curse; a bitter thing

nì-gur11(GA) → nì-GA(-r)

nì-kas7 - a5 to make an accounting

nì-kas7-a5 (nì-ka9-a5) (balanced) account, accounting

nì-ku5 tax, revenue

 

nì-ú-rum property

nì-ul → nì-du7

nì-zi-ĝál living thing, creature (šiknat napištim); wild animals (nammaššû) (Tinney, Nippur Lament p. 167f.)

nì-zú-gub lunch, snack

nì-zuh-a stolen thing, theft (cf. (lú)ní-zuh thief)

x

ni9-ĝar (niĝar) cella (older reading is niĝìn-ĝar; recently Zgoll, ZA 87, 190 reads niĝar ĝar) (Civil, AV

nì-ku5 - a5 to tax, bring in revenue

nì-kúr hostile, hateful thing

túgnì-lám (a kind of garment)

nì-me-ĝar awed silence (qūlu); cheer (rišātu)

nì-MÍ.ÚS.SÁ betrothal gift (Englund, Fischerei 111 n. 357; Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Texts 37f.)

nì-na-me something; nothing (with negated verb)

nì-na(m)-ma everything, all sorts of things

nì-nam - zu to know all, everything

nì-sa-ha fruit

nì-saĝ → nesaĝ

nì-sám/šám price (šīmu) (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 161)

nì-sám-ma(-k) merchandise, purchasing capital; purchases (šiāmātu) (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 162)

nì-si-sá justice

nì-ŠID → nì-kas7

nì-šu goods, production

nì-tuku wealthy, rich (person); wealth

nì - tuku to be a creditor, lit. "to have something with (-da-) someone"

 

Biggs 26: /ĝ/ is uncertain)

níĝ → nì

niga (OS nì-gu7-a) barley/grain-fed, grain-fattened (7-a like lul-da lul-du-a or bar-da

*bar-dù-a)

niĝdaba(PAD.dINANNA) (or nindaba, nidba) (food) offering (see CAD nindabû LL for writings)

níĝin to circle (about), go around, wander about; to encircle, enclose, surround; to be surrounded with (OB). Reduplicated imperfective form is probably to be read ni10-ni10, byform ni5-ni5(NE).

niĝin(-na) total, totality, all together

nìĝin-ĝar → ni9-ĝar

niĝir (conventionally written nimgir) herald, town crier; bailiff

nim, num fly

nim - ĝír to flash lightning

nim-ĝír(-ĝír) (flashing) lightning

gišnimbar (old gišĝišimmar) date palm The current reading is in flux. Older sources show /nimbar/,

/ninbar/, /nimmar/. Civil, AuOr 5, 28f. + n. 25, reads

gišnimbar.

nimgir niĝir

nimin, nin5 forty (Edzard, AV Klein 105)

nin lady, queen, mistress; sister (Pre-Sarg. for later nin9) For meaning in male divine names see Heimpel, AV Jacobsen II (2002) 155-160. Marchesi, Or 73 (2004) 186-9, distinguishes ereš "lady, queen" vs. nin "mistress, proprietess." (ES ga-ša-an, also ù-mu-un in male gods' names, e.g. Nanše B iv 20)

nin-diĝir ereš-diĝir

dnin-ĝír-su(-k) chief god of the Lagaš state

dnin-hur-saĝ-ĝá the creative mother goddess, goddess of birth-giving, patron goddess of Kèš

 

nir(-ra) clean (grain) (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 95)

NIR-da → šer7-da

nir - ĝál to trust, have confidence in (-a), rely upon nir-ĝál sovereign, noble, princely one; trust(worthy) nir-ĝál-bé (ES še-er-ma-al-bé) proudly (etelliš) na4nir7(ZA.MIR) chalcedony

dnin-ka5/(LUL),

 

dnin-ka6(PÉŠ) mongoose, rodent(?)

 

dnisaba (or nidaba) goddess of reed and writing

(> šikkû) (Veldhuis, JCS 54 [2002] 67-9)

dnin-kilim(PÉŠ) (a goddess) (Veldhuis, JCS 54, 67-9)

dnin-líl consort of Enlil the patron god of Nippur

dnin-nínnamušen (a kind of harrier) (see Veldhuis, Education 272-275 for writing variants)

dnin-tu(d) the creative mother goddess, goddess of birth-giving

dnin-urta(-k) weather and farmer god, son of Enlil

nin9 sister (this sign is distinguished from the sign nin

only after OS)

x

NINAki (now being read niĝin ki based on Proto-Ea 288)

ninda bread, food

nínda breed bull; seed funnel of the seeder plow

nindaba → niĝdaba

nindan(NINDA), nindanx(NINDA.DU) (a length measure = 2 gi = 12 kùš = ca. 5.94 meters) (cf. gi-diš- ninda(n) measuring-rod 1 n. long)

ninkum → enkum

ninnu fifty (Edzard, AV Klein 106, reads final vowel as long: /ninnū/)

nir trust; sovereignty, authority, noblity (?); (vault, arch?)

 

nisi(g)(SAR) vegetable; greenery, vegetation; (post- determinative for garden vegetables). Cf. lú-nisi-ga "vegetable gardener" YOS 18, 115 iii 24; lú-nisi in Presargonic Lagaš texts

niš twenty (Edzard, AV Klein 104f.)

nita(h), níta(h) male, man (Gelb, AV Diakonoff 82- 84)

NITA.GA → bunga nitadam → ĝitlam

nu not to be (in limited use as a finite verb)

nu- (old by-form of which begins a handful of compound nouns)

nu-bànda inspector, overseer; lieutenant nu-bar (a kind of priestess) (kulmašītum) dnu-dím-mud (a by-name of Enki)

nu-èš(-k) (a priest in the cult of Nippur)

(> nêšakku) (Steinkeller, Sales Documents 226)

nu(-u8)-gig (a kind of consecrated woman, often associated in some way with birthing) (qadištum, ištarītum); (conventionally "hierodule" as an epithet of Inanna) (Emesal mu-gib(GIG), mu-gi17(GIG)-ib)

6

nu-(giš)kiri6(-k) orchardman, gardener (also with phonetic indicator in Ur III: nu-kikiri6, nu-kiri ki) (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 168f.; Powell, ZA 62, 190ff.) Sjöberg, AV Limet 128, argues this is not a

genitive compound, but rather a form */nukarig/; cf. the g/b alternation in the loan nukaribbu.

nu-mu(-un)-su, nu-ma(-nu)-su, na-ma-su widow Rdg. is conventional; newest reading is nu-mu(-un)- kuš for which see Cavigneaux, RA 87, 111.

nu-siki, nu-síg fatherless or homeless child, orphan, waif

gišnu-úr-ma pomegranate (nurmû)

nú(d), nux(SA4) to lie (down), go to bed; to lay down (e.g. traps, snares; see Sjöberg, AV Klein 297); to creep, slither Conventionally read . For the value nux see še21; Veldhuis, in Education 284, calls še21 "the inanimate complement of ."

gišĝiš-nú

na4nu11-gal na4ĝiš-nu11-gal,

numun (i.e. nuĝun) seed; descendant (Civil, AV Biggs 30)

únúmun (a type of rush or sedge) (Civil, AV Biggs 30)

NUNku6agargaraku6

nun noble, prince; princess (cf. Temple Hymns line 82)

nun(-na) princely, noble, preeminent, grand; loud

nun-bé loudly

nundum lip; lip or rim of a vessel

nunuz egg

nunuz - ĝar to lay eggs

P

pa branch, branches; stick

pa-áĝ, pa-an → zi - pa-áĝ, za-pa-áĝ

 

pa - è to come forth radiantly; to be/make resplendent, splendid; to make famous; periphrastic: pa-è - a5 to make resplendent

pa-mušen(-na) feathers

pa-pah cella; bedroom (Alster, AV Hallo 15 + n. 2)

pa-sa-lá-a tied bundle of sticks

pà(d) to come into view or consideration, be revealed; to reveal, show; to call (up), choose; to find, discover

pa4, pa5 irrigation ditch (palgu)

pa4, pap older brother, eldest son; forebear, "father" pa4/pa-bìl-ga grandfather; paternal uncle; ancestor gipad (a kind of basket)

pad(r) to break off a piece (kasāpu), chip off; to crumble, crush, destroy (šebēru,pasāsu) (PSD B now connects, at least in some meanings, with bu(r), q.v.) (Steinkeller, WZKM 77, 191 + n. 18)

pad(r) portion, piece (see also šuku) túgpala1-3 (a divine or royal garment) palil(IGI.DU) foremost one (cf. igi-du)

gišpan (rarely gišba-na) bow (reading ban is obsolete, see Civil, JCS 55, 50f.)

pàr-rim4 → bar-rim4

pe-el to defile, spoil, dirty (lu''û)

pe-el-lá, p/bíl-lá spoiled, sour, bad; defiled, desecrated (cf. šu pe-el-lá - du11 to defile)

peš heart of palm

peš, peš4 to swell, expand, become fat, thick, enlarged; to be(come) pregnant; to grow (said of a child, cf. Ur- Namma A 152)

peš - ĝál to be powerful

péš mouse (humşīru)

gišpèš(MA) fig

peš5 to card wool

peš10(KI.A) riverbank, seashore

pi-lu5-da → biluda piriĝ lion

pisaĝ (conventionally read pisan, better bisaĝ, bešeĝ?) box, container (often with reed or wood determinative)

pisaĝ-dub(-ba) tablet (storage) box or basket pu-úh-ru-um puhrum ) well (see also túl)

pú-giškiri6 irrigated orchard

puzur5, buzur5 secret

R

ra, ra-ah to hit, beat upon; to strike down; to drive (animals); to impress (a seal). Verb has dual syntax: to make something beat upon (-a/e) (older), to beat with something (-e) (newer)

-(b)-ra-aš → -braš

ra-gaba, rá-gaba mounted messenger, courier, rider

rá-zu → a-rá-zu

gišrab clamp, stock (cf. gušurx) re7 → du

ri to lie (heavily) upon, press upon, put (firmly) onto, into; to oppress; to affix, cover with; to found, erect; to equip with

ri to blow; to drift; to convey

ri(g) → de5

ri-ri-ga → de5-de5-ga

 

rib, ri(b) great, surpassing, huge

ru-gú to face, stand opposite, counter, confront, oppose

rú(DU3) to erect, in na-rú-a (read drù ?)

S

sa sinew; string, cord; net; bundle, bunch

sa-al-kad5 net sack

sa-ga → sa6-ga, sig5-ga

sa-ĝar-ra (an OB hymn rubric, the second main section of tigi and adab hymn types)

sa-gaz migrant laborer(?); highway robber, murderer(?)

sa-gaz - a5 to perform migrant labor (?); to commit murder (?) (cf. A. Westenholz, ECTJ No. 8)

sa-gi bundle of reeds

sa-gíd-da (an OB hymn rubric, the first main section of

tigi and adab hymn types)

sa-pàr (sa-bàr), sa-bar (hunting) net sa-šuš throwing net (also as weapon) sa-tu šadû)

square (in Gudea and math., see Suter, ZA 87, 5)

to be equal to (-da-), match; to rival, vie with (-da-); to make (accounts) balance

sá - du11 to reach, arrive at, attain, obtain, overtake (Attinger, Eléments 632-652)

sá-du11(-ga) regular offering sá - sè to plot, plan strategy sa4 → mu - sa4, še21

sa6(g), ša6(g) to slaughter (sheep, goats) (reading uncertain, cf. perhaps sìg/sàg to strike, also šár to slaughter sheep)

sa6(g), ša6(g) to be good, beautiful; to be pleasing to; to be pleased with (-da-); cf. igi-a - sa6 to be a favorite of (sa6 is now the preferred reading, at least for OB and earlier)

sa6(-ga), ša6(-ga) good, beautiful, pleasing

sa7(g) to be well-formed, perfectly formed, beautifully created (probably connect with sa6)

sa7-ga well-formed

sa10 to buy (with -ši-); to sell (with -ta/ra-, secondary development). Originally and in math. the meaning was "to measure out grains as equivalents for other goods" (cf. ). See Steinkeller, Sale Documents 153-162.

Older reading šám is often still seen. Cf. sám.

sa12-du5(-k) (or saĝ-du5) field or land registrar (šassukku) (Falkenstein, NSGU III 153)

ság - du11 to scatter, disturb, dislodge, disrupt, dissipate, diminish (Attinger, Eléments, 655-664) Linked with sàg(SÌG) "to beat" by ePSD.

sàg → sìg

sag8(KAL), sag10 → sig5 sagi cupbearer

saĝ n. head; front, fore, beginning; surface; man, person, human being; slave, servant (G. Farber, AV Klein 108-115)

saĝ adj. first, foremost, principal; prime, first rate; first- born;

saĝ-bar head hair

saĝ-bi-šè - è to go to the fore, be foremost, most excellent

saĝ-du head

saĝ-du5 → sa12-du5

 

saĝ - du11 to achieve, complete, create with great care (Attinger, Eléments 653-655)

saĝ - ĝar (ĝá-ĝá) to proceed, venture against, attack, (dare to) oppose

saĝ-gaz - a5 to commit murder

saĝ-gíg(-ga) Black Headed Ones (native designation for the Sumerians)

saĝ ĝiš - ra to commit murder, kill

saĝ-ĝiš-ra-a murder

saĝ - íl to lift, raise, hold the head high, be proud

saĝ-íl-la proudly, with head held high

saĝ - kal to give preference, prefer

saĝ-kal first rank, preeminent, foremost (some read

saĝ-rib, others cautiously prefer saĝ-KAL) saĝ - kéš to organize

saĝ-kéš - a5 to pay attention to (-šè/-e) , heed

saĝ-ki forehead

saĝ-ki - gíd to furrow the brow, frown

saĝ-ki-zalag - bar to look upon with a shining countenance

gišsaĝ-kul bolt, lock

saĝ-men crown

saĝ-munus (grown) woman, female (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 130f., reads saĝ-SAL; others read saĝ-mí)

saĝ-nita (grown) man, male (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 130f.)

saĝ-nì-GA-ra financial/business capital; amount available before crediting or debiting The rdg. -gur11- ra is still current; for rdg. -ga-ra see disc. s.v. ĝar.

saĝ(-e-éš) - rig7 to give, present, grant

saĝ - sè(g) to entrust; to take care of, tend to, attend

saĝ - sìg to be brought low, down, be in despair

saĝ - šúm to hurry, rush (into combat) against, attack

saĝ-šu4 → saĝšu

saĝ-ur-saĝ (a member of the cultic personnel of Inanna, perhaps a "cult warrior" figure who engages in mock combat in her honor? Cf. Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma, p. 225)

saĝ-ús regular, constant, reliable; constant supporter

saĝa chief (temple or palace) administrator (some read

saĝĝa, conventional reading is still sanga) (šangû)

saĝšu, saĝ-šu4 helmet, head covering (usually with wool or copper determinative)

sahar dirt, soil, sand; dust, powder; ore (Civil, AV Biggs 21)

sahar-dul-tag4 burial mound (Pre-Sarg.)

sakar → u4-sakar

sal v. & adj. (to be) fine, thin, delicate; to be frivolous (cf. eme-sal)

sal v. & adj. (to be) wide, broad (cf. tál)

SAL → munus

sám, šám price (cf. sa10 and see discussion in Steinkeller, Sale Documents 153-155)

saman lead rope (Civil, AV Biggs 21) (šummannu)

sanga saĝa

santak(2-4) (i.e. saĝtak) cuneiform wedge (Klein, RA 80, 3f.)

sar garden plot; (an area measure = 1/100 iku = 1 sq.

nindan = ca. 38.28 sq. meters)

sar to write (on), inscribe

sar to run, chase

 

SAR → nisi, u4-sakar

sè(g), sè(k) or sì(g) (all = sig10) to become, act, make like, make into; to be equal, equaled; to set, put, place; to cast (in moulds); to provide with

se12 → sig7 ses → šeš, sis

si (animal) horn; horn (the musical instrument); horn- shaped thing; tip, point

si to tie (shoes, sandles) (Civil, Or ns 56, 237)

si, sù(g) to be(come) full; to fill or occupy a space, container, area; to cover, put all over, or to completely occupy an area or surface; to store; to pile up (šapāku); to inlay, overlay, coat; to sink (a well, post, peg into the ground); to do fully; to suffice, be enough; to add (interest to) (Steinkeller, JESHO 24, 142 + n. 77) The verb has dual syntax: to fill into (older), to fill with (newer). The reading was traditionally si(g) but is now si without an Auslaut in the meaning 'fill' at least, with a variant sù(g). ePSD now links most instances of si(g), si-ig with sè(g) to place. A dedicated study of these verbs is needed.

si(g) to be(come) silent

si(-ga) silent, silently; adv. si-ga-bé quietly

gišsi-ĝar (door) bolt, bar

si-ì-tum (Akk.) remainder

si-ig sig

si-il, síl(NUN) to unwind (a cord, rope), unfurl; to split, cleave, divide, breach; to tear or rip up, off, open; to peel off, strip; to disband (a group) (salātu)

si-im šèm

si-im to smell (perhaps connect with šim?) Cf. ir - si- im

si-im(-si-im) - a5 to smell, sniff

(urudu)si-im-da, sim-da šimtu) (Foxvog, ZA 85, 5-6)

si-mùš radiance

si - sá to do or perform in a regular, right, correct, proper fashion; to maintain properly; to supply, provide regularly; to make regular, regulate; to prepare, ready in a correct way, put in order; to be straight, go straightway, directly, guide straight, straighten

si-sá just, righteous; just person

sì(g) sè(g)

si4, su4, sa5 red, reddish, brown (the sign is REC 48,

i.e. SI-gunû)

sig, si-ig to be(come) weak, thin, flat, low, level; to bring down, tear down, rip apart, demolish, level, remove

sig(-ga), si-ga weak; thin, narrow; low, lower, lower land; south, southern

sig(-ga), si-ga a-sig síg siki

sìg (sàg) to strike, beat upon, beat down, fell; to make tremble, quake. Some now read sàg with Proto Ea 490. The verb has dual syntax: to make something beat upon (earlier), to beat with something (later) (connected with ság - du11 'to scatter' by ePSD)

sig4 (šeg12) brick; brickwork, brick walls (sig4 is conventional; the newest reading is šeg12) (ES še-eb)

SIG4 - gi4 → še25 - gi4

sig4(-al)-ùr/ur5-ra baked, fired brick (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 193f.)

sig5, si-ig, sig to be(come) good, fine, pleasing, beautiful (by-form of sa6(g); see also a-sig)

sig5(-ga), si(-ig)-ga, sig15(KAL) good, high or best quality, pleasing, beautiful. ePSD now prefers to read sag10, sag8(KAL) (cf. sa6-ga, sa-ga)

 

sig7 (se12, si12) to be(come) green, yellow, sallow, pale (read si12-si12 when reduplicated)

sig7(-ga), sig17, (reduplicated si12-si12) green, yellow, tan; verdant (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 56) Cf. kù-sig17(GI))

sig7 (perhaps better se12 or si12) plural of → ti(l) and

lu5(g)

sig7-sig7 - ĝar to produce sobs (onomatopoetic?) (George, RAI 47, 141-143)

SIG7-igi → úgur-igi sig15(KAL) → sig5

siki (síg, sík) wool, hair (siki is now the most common reading)

siki-ba (síg-ba) wool ration

siki-mug wool of poor/inferior quality (mukku) (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 57 + n. 133, Waetzoldt,

Textilindustrie 56-57)

sikil to be pure, clean, pristine, virginal; to purify

sikil(-la) pure, clean síl(NUN) → si-il sila street

sìla (a capacity measure = 0.842 liter or ca. 9/10 quart)

sila4 male lamb

sila4-ga(-sub-ba) suckling lamb

sila4-gaba(-k) offering(?) lamb; semi-weaned(?) lamb (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 55) For the genitive cf. Ukg 1 iv 30 bar sila4-gaba-ka-ka. See also Archi-Pomponio, Drehem No. 40; Selz, FAOS 15/1 p. 379.

sila11(ĝ), silaĝ(ŠID) to knead

sig

 

(se , si

 

) to cut (plants, with a small tool, an

 

sila11-ĝá dough

7         12       12

agricultural activity) (compare parallels ú-kul zé-a

UTI 4, 2697:2, ú-kul se12-a UTI 4, 2769:2, ú-kul ku5-

UTI 4, 2398:3) (see Molina & Such-Gutiérrez, JNES 63, 1-16)

 

silig → šilig

silim to be well, whole, healthy, safe, at peace, in good condition; to fulfill an office or term

silim(-eš) - du11 to greet, salute; to boast (Attinger, Eléments 673-678)

silim-ma adj. whole, well; in good condition (as of plows in Nik I 287); n. well-being

silim-ma Be well! (imperative)

simug smith

simmušen swallow (sinuntu) (Veldhuis, Education 279- 280)

sipa(d) shepherd; chief shepherd

sír → zi(r)

sir5, šir5 to spin wool

sis(ŠEŠ) (ses) v. and adj. (to be) bitter, brackish, saline For a reading zahx see Steinkeller, NABU 2007 p. 18; see also → mun4(ŠEŠ) 'salt, brackish'.

sisi(ANŠE.KUR.RA), anšesí-sí (Ur III) horse

sískur, sízkur (a kind of prayer or rite)

su body; kin, family (e.g. Gilg. & Huwawa A 144); substance (of the country) (cf. kuš)

su → sù, zu

su(b), su-ub, sub, sub6(TAG) to rub, wipe, scrub, polish; to reap; to smear on (ASJ 11, 213; 8, 12); to suck, suckle

su(g) to replace, repay

su-bar the outside of the body

su-dinmušen, šu4-dinmušen bat (sutinnu) (Veldhuis, Education 281)

su-GAN, sù-GAN (a kind of copper?) su-kalam(-ma) well-being of the nation su-lim awesome light, brilliance

su - zi(g) to have goose flesh, become frightened

 

su-zi fear, dread

su-zi - ri to lay fear upon, strike fear into

sù, su to sink (as of boats) (Civil, AV Wilcke 80)

sù(d) (sud) or to sprinkle, spatter (elēhu, zarāqu, zalāhu); to decorate (ulluhu); to overlay, adorn (zânu) (there is some confusion with sù(g))

sù(dr), sud(r) to be(come) distant, remote (in time or space); to extend, prolong, elongate; to be long-lived or long-lasting

sù(dr), sud-rá distant, remote

sù(g) (sug4), su(g) to be empty, deserted; to be naked

sù(-ga), su(-ga) empty, deserted, desolate; naked, plucked

sù(g) to be full, filled with (-a) (var. of si(g)); to be (richly) equipped or embellished/decorated with; to wear (a beard); to be served food (see ú - sù(g))

sud-rá-áĝ (yellowish) gleam (said of moonlight); amber; electrum(?)

su4 → si4

su6 (sum4) beard

su6 - lá to wear a beard

su8(b) → du su8(g) → gub

subur, šubur š/ is late) (Civil, AV Biggs 30; Gelb, AV Diakonoff 89f.)

sud → sù(dr)

dsuen(EN.ZU) one of the two names of the moon god (cf. dnanna), patron of the city Ur

sug (reed) marsh

sug-ge - gu7 to be obliterated, destroyed (lit. "consumed by the marsh")

suh, suh5 to tear, rip, pluck out; to select, choose (nasāqu)

suh-(h)a, suh5-ha selected, select, first quality; elite (troops)

sùh to be confused, blurred, tangled, in disorder, in disarray; to be dangerous

sùh-sah4 - za to make a crunching sound (an onomatopoetic construction; see M. Civil, JCS 20, 117ff.; Black, AV Wilcke 35ff.)

kušsúhub boot, shoe

suhur (a feature or style of hair)

suhurku6 (a kind of carp)

suhuš sole of the foot; base, foundation

sukkal vizier, chancellor, minister (traditionally 'vizier'); envoy, messenger (Wiggermann, ZA 78 [1988] 225ff.)

sukud(r) to be (piled) high, towering

sukud(r), sukud-rá/da adj. high, towering; n. height

 

delimit, divide; a - sur to pass urine (George, AV Black 114)

súr, šúr, sumur furious, fear-inspiring

súr → zi(r)

súr-dùmušen falcon (surdû)

sùr, sur ditch, trough

surx(ÉRIN) team; workers, work-gang, troop (OS) (see Steinkeller, NABU 1990/12; Selz, UGASL 43 n.

178) Cf. érin

Š

-ša (a suffix occurring with the fractions 1/3 and 2/3 in older texts, meaning unknown)

šà(g) (šag4) heart, inside, interior, middle; womb; meaning

šà - bal to breed

šà-bal-bal-a progeny; generation

(túg)suluhu(SÍG.SÙ) "long fleece," a kind of sheep and fleece, also a kind of garment made from its wool

 

šà - dab5

 

to feel hurt, be worried

sum to give (older reading, now replaced by → šúm)

sum(nisi) garlic, onion (ePSD now reads šúm) (šūmū) (Stol, BSA 3, 57-59; Prentice, AV Black 256)

sum-sikil onion, shallot (šamaškillu) (Stol, BSA 3, 59- 62)

sumun (suĝun), sun (to be) old

sún, ú-sún, súmun wild cow

sun5, sun5-na humble (probably a by-form of du9(n)) sun7(KAL) to be harsh(?), vain(?)

sur to press out (liquids), squeeze, extract; to plait, twist together (rope); to wipe away; to oppress, suppress; to draw a boundary, mark off, demarcate,

 

šà-du10 young (of humans and animals), infant

šà-gal fodder; food (ukullû)

šà-ĝar → šaĝar

šà-ge - du11 to say to oneself, say inwardly

šà-ge-guru6-7 one's heart's desire

šà-ge - pà to envision inwardly (conventionally "choose in/by the heart")

šà-gu4 plowman's assistant

šà - gur4 to feel wonderful (see Civil ad Ninkasi Hymn 61f.)

šà - huĝ (wr. conventionally hun) to soothe the heart, appease, calm down

šà-hul-gig hatred

šà - húl to gladden the heart, make happy

šà-húl-la that which gladdens the heart; a glad heart, happiness, joy (also construed with a genitive: šà-húl- la(-k))

šà-ka-tab fast, fasting

šà - kúš to deliberate, take counsel with (-da-)

šà-lá-sù(d) merciful, gracious šà - sìg to be depressed, anxious šà-sìg depression, sorrow

šà-sù-ga emptiness, nakedness

šà-sur diarrhea

šà-súr-ra raging, furious heart

šà - šed7-8 to cool the heart, calm, soothe

šà-túm meadow

šà - túm/tùm to decide šà-zu midwife (šabsūtu) ša4 → ad - ša4, še - ša4 ša6(g) → sa6(g)

ša6-ga → sa6-ga

šab (a kind of container)

šabra, sabra municipal overseer of fields

šaĝa(LÚxKÁR) prisoner(?); (one to whom an injustice is done, see Krecher, AV Matouš II 57)

šaganx(AMA.GAN(.ŠA)) bearing mother (human and animal) (see now Attinger, ZA 95, 274f. for rdg. ama- šaganx(GAN) with or without phonetic indicator)

šaĝar(GU7), šà-ĝar, še-ĝar starvation, famine, hunger

 

šagina (military) governor; general

šáh, šah pig (cf. zé-eh)

dugšakir churn

šám → sám, sa10 šandan(a)(GAL.NI) gardener

šár to be or make numerous, multiply

šár the numeral 3600; adj. numerous, many, innumerable, manifold, myriad, all; n. multitude

šár to slaughter (sheep)

šár-ra-ab-du8 (a field worker)

še barley, grain; (a weight measure = 1/180 gín = ca. 1/20 gram)

ŠE → niga

še(g) v. and adj. (to be) agreeable, willing, obedient

še-ba barley, grain ration

še-du10 (a tree and its wood) (Powell, BSA 6, 115f.)

še-er to be bright, radiant (namāru) (cf. → še-er-zi)

še-er-gu string of fruit (from late Sarg. on); ring- shaped ornament (OAkk) (Civil, Or 56, 235)

še-er-ka-an - du11 (vars. -ha- and -ga-) to decorate, adorn (Attinger, Eléments 683-688; Civil, Or 56, 235

n. 10; Sjöberg, TCS 3, 92)

še-er-ma-al-bé proudly (Emesal for nir-ĝál-bé =

etelliš)

še-er-zi (also just še-er) gleam, radiance, brilliance (Römer, BiOr 32, 158-162) (šarūru)

še-ga willing, obedient

še-ga-bé, še-ga-ne-ne by mutual agreement, with both (or all) of them in agreement

še-ĝar → šaĝar

še-gín glue (also as paint medium)

še-gu-nu, še-gù/gùn-nu speckled barley; second, late crop (cf. gùn)

še - gur10 to harvest grain

še-ĝiš-ì sesame (see BSA 2 passim) še-li pine or juniper seeds (kikkirânu) še-LÚ coriander (kisibirru)

še-numun seed barley, seed grain

še - ša4 to moan, groan

še-šeĝ9 ripe barley

še-ù-suh fir cone (ASJ 9, 349 n. 9) (terinnu)

še8 ( šéš) to cry (cf. ér - še8)

še21(SA4) (a) (a writing for sa4 = nabû); (b) (an error for , i.e. nux(SA4). See Civil, Iraq 23, 168; Wilcke, LE ad 35. Veldhuis, Education 284 calls še21 an "inanimate complement" of nú.

še25 - gi4 to cry out, scream, screech. The old reading is šix(d). Read now še25/šeg10 for KAxŠID or še26/šeg11 for KAxDÚB. Gudea texts write šeg12(SIG4). See Zgoll, AOAT 246, 312f.

šed7-11, še4/12/18, se11(SIG) to cool, be cool, cold; to soothe, calm, appease

šèĝ(A.AN), šeĝ7(IM) to rain; n. rain (also written

IM.A.AN, IM.A, or IM.A.A)

šeĝ6 to boil, cook, heat, bake (bašālu) (Steinkeller, AV Sigrist 186)

šeĝ9 ripe (grain)

šeĝ9 wild boar; wild sheep(?)

šeĝ9-bar (or šeĝbarx(ŠEĜ9)bar) Mesopotamian fallow deer (conventionally "wild ram, sheep," but see Stein- keller, BSA 8, 50)

šeg10-11 - gi4 → še25 - gi4

 

šeg12 → sig4, še25 - gi4

(urudu)šèm, si-im cymbals (Mirelman, NABU 2010 No. 33)

urudušen (a kind of kettle or ewer)

ŠEN → dur10

šen v. & adj. (to be) clean, pure

šen-šen very clean, immaculate

šen-šen battle (cf. the same sign read dur10)

šer7(NIR)-da capital crime/offense, serious "felony"; a corresponding punishment. Civil, AV Hallo 75ff. reads NIR-da, Emesal šèr-da, še-er-da (the šer7-da read by some cannot be proved directly; perhaps Akk. nērtu "murder" was the original source for a word *ner-da?)

ŠEŠ → sis

šeš brother (probably to be read ses at least through OB; cf. se-ès = ŠEŠ Proto-Ea 623)

šeš-gal elder brother; school monitor

šéš → še8

šeš4, šéš to anoint, anoint oneself

ši-pa-áĝ → zi-pa-áĝ

šibir(U.ENxKÁR) (shepherd's) staff (šibirru) (Veldhuis, Education 175f. Civil, AV Biggs 27)

šid to count; to recount, recite, read; to count, number among, reckon as; to do an accounting

šid counting; line count (at the end of tablets)

šika (pot)sherd; fragment (of a tablet)?; shell, carapace; (fish) scales; cf. šika-ku5-da broken potsherds (Marchesi, SEL 16, 16) (išhilşu)

šilam(TÙRxSAL), OS šilamx(TÙR) (domestic) mother cow (Veldhuis, JCS 54 [2002] 69-74

šilanga → silaĝ(-ĝá)

šilig (silig) to cease (usually in negated participle nu- šilig-e unceasing); to make cease, annihilate

šim aromatic, a substance having a pleasing odor or fragrance (first element of numerous terms for resins) Cf. perhaps si-im to smell.

šim-zi-da, šim-bi-zi(-da) mascara, kohl (antimony paste)

giššinig tamarisk (bīnu) (Powell, BSA 6, 106f.)

šìr song (J.G. Westenholz, AV Klein 350f.) (šēru, zamāru)

šìr - ra to strike up a song, sing

šìr(-re-eš) - du11 to say (as/in) a song, sing (Attinger, Eléments 690-695)

šìr-nam-šub (a mainly Emesal hymn type) (Flückiger- Hawker, Urnamma p. 260-263)

šita (syllabic eš-da) (a kind of priest); (a cultic vessel)

Cf. nam-šita

šita-ab-(b)a (a kind of priest)

šíta (obsolete, read now utúg mace)

šitim, šidim (house) builder, mason, bricklayer (itinnušu- dím? Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 237)

šu hand; handwriting; handle (Steinkeller, ASJ 9, 349

n. 11); pounding stone, muller (Civil, AuOr Suppl. 22, 132); responsibility of

šu-a - bal to transfer, transmit, hand over (Civil, JCS 28, 79)

šu-a - gi4 to return to the charge/control/care of (Sallaberger, AV Klein 249f.), to hand over, turn in, transmit, hand down; to repeat (with or without -a)

šu-a - si(g) to pay, put full payment into the hand

šu - bad to open the hand; to lay hands on, seize, loot (cf. šu - ba(r))

ŠU.BAD → zapah

 

šu - bal to overturn, alter, change

šu-bal - a5 to overturn; to replace, change X into Y (Civil, JCS 28, 79f.)

šu - ba(r), šu - bar to release, set free; to forget (the original root is /badr/; cf. šu - bad and see Krecher, AV Kutscher 111-117)

šu - dab5 to (make the hand) seize; to take (with) the hand

šu - dag to wander; to abandon (cf. dag)

šu-daĝal - du11 to effect or accomplish much, make great exertions; to become or make widespread (cf. šu - du11)

šu - dù to slander, denounce

šu - dù to capture (cf. CAD K 129a)

šu - du7 to do, set, perform, prepare, correctly or perfectly; to complete, perfect; to embellish, adorn

šu-du7(-a) perfect

šu - du8 to hold (in the hand); to guarantee, provide surety for

šu-du8-a guarantor

šu-du8-a - gub to establish a guarantee or surety, to serve as guarantor for

šu - du11 to use the hand; to do, effect; to exert oneself; to accomplish (Attinger, Eléments 696-703)

šu-du11-ga accomplishment, creation

šu - ĝar to set the hand to, do something (good, worthy), do a favor, favor

šu-ĝar - gi4 (also šu - gi4) to avenge, take vengeance on, repay (lit. "to return, send back what was done")

šu-gi4 old one (person or animal)

šu - gi4 → šu-a - gi4, šu-ĝar - gi4

šu - gíd to reach out the hand, take, accept; (to perform an extispicy, cf. máš-šu-gíd-gíd)

šu-HA(d) (or šu-peš(d) or šu-ku6(dr)) fisherman. The old reading is šu-ha; many now read šu-ku6. See major discussion in Englund, BBVO 10, 230-236. In view of the variant peš(HA-gunû), the reading might be šu- peš11(HA), assuming that the problem of the Auslaut is the same as that of kéšdr. Conversely, šu-hadx(PEŠ) has been proposed. ePSD reads /šukud/. J. Bauer, ZDMG 146 (1996) 183, hesitantly proposes /šukudr/ in the OS Lagaš texts. Cf. Bauer also in his AWL p.

375f. and CAD šukudakku.

šu - hu/ru-uz to burn, roast, set on fire (Civil, AV Biggs 32)

šu-i barber

šu-íl-la (an Emesal temple prayer)

šu - kár to insult, denigrate

giššu-kár equipment, tools, implements (unūtu); (a musical instrument)

šu-kíĝ service, assignment

šu-kíĝ - dab5 to do a service; to revere; periphrastic:

šu-kíĝ-dab5 - a5

šu - lá to defile, desecrate

šu - luh to wash the hands; to wash, cleanse; periphrastic: šu-luh - a5 to clean (a canal) (Civil, AV Biggs 32 + n. 30)

šu-luh lustration, washing ritual (cf. šuluhhu)

šu - mú to make grow, emerge; to pray

šu - níĝin to circle around/back, make a round trip

šu-níĝin(-na) all encompassing šu-níĝin, šu+níĝin sub-total šu+niĝin grand total

šu-nir standard

šu-pe-el-lá - du11 to defile (Attinger, Eléments 710- 714)

šu - peš to increase, broaden, expand

 

šu - ri to lay the hand upon; to wring the hands

šu-ri-a, (OS šu-ru-a, šu-rí) one-half (Civil, Or 56, 234; Steinkeller, JESHO 24, 142)

šu-si finger

šu si - sá to keep in good order

šu-sùh-a - du11 to produce confusion, disturbance (Attinger, Eléments 716-718)

šu - šúm to give, entrust

šu - tag to touch; to play a musical instrument (e.g. Nanše Hymn 44; see Sjöberg, AV Limet 135); to decorate (Attinger, Eléments 722f.)

šu-tag - du11 to decorate, adorn (Attinger, Eléments 720-725)

šu - tag4 to dispatch, send out, send over (Civil, AuOr 8, 109-111 reads. tak4)

šu - ti to take from (-ši-), accept, receive, get, seize, catch; to reach for (the imperf. root is usually te(ĝ))

šu-tur inscription

giššu-úr-me/mén, šurmen(ŠU.ME.EREN) cypress (the tree, its wood, or its resin)

šu - ùr to erase, rub out, annihilate (imperf. often written uru12(ÙR) as well as ùr-ru/re)

šu-ur6(-rá) → šúr

šu - ús to push (open)

šu - zi to raise the hand (destructively) against

šú (šúš), šu4 (šuš) to (let) fall upon, spread over, apply, cover (especially with nets); to overwhelm, cast down; to become obscure, dark

šu4(g) → gub

šub to (let) fall, be felled, fell; to throw down, away; to forsake, abandon, dismiss; to give up, leave off; to remove from (-ta-)

šub-ba fallen, collapsed, demolished, abandoned

ŠUB-lugal royal subordinate, vassal(?) (a class of workers in Presargonic texts)

šuba(ZA.MÚŠ), šúba(ZA.MÙŠ) bright, shining, pure; multicolored

(na4)šùba(MÙŠxZA), šuba agate(?) (šubû)

šubun → ĝišbun šubur → subur

šùd, šu12 n. prayer; v. to pray

šùd - du11 to say a prayer, pray (Attinger, Eléments 726-728)

šùd - rá to pray

giššudul(4) yoke (some read šudun)

šuku(dr) subsistance allotment/plot (šuku is the conventional reading, ePSD reads šúkur, and some now read pad(r). The value kur6 does not exist; see Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Legal Texts 69, also Civil, AV Biggs 29 s.v. kurum.) (kurummatu)

šukur thorn, needle

gišukur reed fence, corral (Civil, AuOr 5, 22; Römer, AfO 40/41, 30ff.; Michalowski, Lamentation p. 75)

giššukur, urudušukur, spear, lance

šul young, youthful one (Marchesi, Or 73, 191-3 (some now read sul)

šum to slaughter

urudušum saw

urudušum-gam curved(?) saw

šúm(SUM) to give; to pay (in commodities or a combination of a metal and commodity) The standard older reading sum may also be correct in some contexts; see Zgoll, AOAT 246, 311.

šúm(nisi) garlic, onion (conventionally read sum) (šūmū) (Stol, BSA 3, 57-59)

šúr to be furious, enraged

 

šúr adj. & adv. furious, angry, haughty; angrily (Civil, AV Biggs 31 s.v. /sumur/) (An older syllabic reading šu-ur6(-rá) in two Lagash I royal inscriptions cannot be defended.)

šúr-bé furiously, angrily

šúr-dùmušen falcon

šurim(LAGABxGUD%GUD), šùrim(LAGABx GUD) dung

šuš, šúš → šú šùš kuš7

šutur(MAH) quality cloth

T

ta(-àm) what?

tab to be parallel, lie parallel to; to double; to twist, entwine; to link, join, unite; to lock; to sweep away, devastate (sapānu) (cf. Michalowski, Lamentation p. 71; Civil, NABU 1987/49)

tab-ba companion; pair, twin; together

táb, tab to burn, glow

tag to touch, prod; to touch wrongly, profane, spoil; to weave; to overlay, face, embellish; to apply, treat with; to broadcast (seed-grain, see Maekawa, ASJ 15, 112)

TAG → sub6, zíl

tag4, tak4 (reduplicated da13-da13) to leave, leave over, leave for the benefit or use of; to abandon, divorce; to remove (see Civil, AuOr 8, 111 in disc. of šu - tak4)

tál(PI) to be broad, wide; to widen, expand; to spread out, lay out (cf. sal)

tál(-la) wide

tan4 → dan6

tar to divide, separate, cut Cf. nam - tar

gištaskarin boxwood

(uzu)te cheek

te(ĝ) (imperf.), ti (perf.) to approach (cf. Thomsen, Sumerian Language p. 114f.)

te(n), te-en (redupl. te-en-te) to cool; to soothe, assuage; to extinguish (a fire); to annihilate

te-en cool, cold; te-te-en very cool (Sjöberg, AV Jacobsen (2002) 232; root was originally te-me-en like sun/sumun)

te-eš → téš TE.ME → ní-te

temen, te-me(-n) foundation, perimeter; foundation depost (originally the pegs which mark out the foundation plot; see Dunham, RA 80, 31-64) (Civil, AV Biggs 27) (temennu)

temen - si(g) to lay a foundation (originally to sink the pegs marking out the foundation, e.g. RIME1 1.7.2 6.f úr-bé ki-šè temen ba-si) at its (the temple's) base into the earth he buried (this) foundation deposit)

téš modesty, shame; vigor, pride; (a euphemism for vulva) (cf. lú téš nu-zu/tuku shameless person)

téš, te-eš unity, oneness; each one, one another (connect with diš one)

téš-a, téš-ba, téš-ta together, as one

téš-a sè-ga(-bé) put together as one, acting in unity

téš-bé, téš-bi-šè as one, all together

téš-bé - gu7 → UR-bé - gu7

téš - du11 to shout together, roar(?)

ti(l), ti-il v. to live, be alive; to dwell (the plural root is sig7/se12 (Steinkeller, SEL 1, 5ff.; Thomsen, Sumerian Language p. 135); n. life

ti → te(ĝ)

uzuti(-ti) rib(s)

 

(giš)ti arrow

2

ti-gi4-lumušen, ti-gid mušen-lú (Gudea) (a bird) (Civil, NABU 1987/48; Veldhuis, Education 187; Bauer, AV Klein 19-22) For the related musical instrument see tigidlu.

ti-la alive, living, while alive

ti - bal turn sideways, onto the side

gišti-zú barbed arrow(?), arrow point(?) tibir, tíbir fist (Civil, AV Biggs 27) (upnu) tibir - ra to slap

tibira (dibira) metal and wood craftsman (also involved in the making of statues). Wr. DUB.NAGAR through Ur III, then URUDU.NAGAR in OB. (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 176; Sjöberg, AV Limet 127f.) (gurgurru)

tigi (a kind of drum); (an OB hymn type, a hymn of praise consisting minimally of sagida and saĝara sections)

gištigidlu/a(ŠA3.TAR or DI.TAR) (a musical instrument named after a bird) (Civil, NABU 1987/48; Veldhuis, Education 187) (see ti-gi4-lumušen)

til to be finished, ended, completed; to finish off, bring to an end (cf. inim-bi al-til this matter is closed)

tílla crossroads, town square, marketplace

tin wine (Badler, BaM 27 (1996) 42, identified a residue in an excavated pot as that of a "grape liquid, most probably wine," suggesting that wine was known in Mesopotamia as early as the late Uruk period.)

(giš)tir forest, (riverine) grove

dtir-an-na rainbow titab cooked beer mash tumušen dove, pigeon

tu(d), ù-tu(d) to be born, begotten; to give birth, engender, beget; to form, create (statues) (some now read (ù-)dú)

tu(r) (tur5) to be sick; adj. tu-ra

tu-di-da, tu-di-tum toggle pin, fibula (see Klein, ZA 73, 255-284; Sjöberg, ZA 86, 224f.)

tu-lu to loosen, slacken, relax gištu-lu-bu-um plane tree or wood imtu-ru-na → imdurun-na

tu6 incantation

tu7 soup (Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 104f.) (written with the same sign as útul tureen)

tu9 → túg

tu10(b), tu11(b) to smite, strike, defeat (this meaning has also been associated with the values hub, húb but PSD keeps them separate)

tu11(b) (var. of dub to heap up ?)

túd to whip

túg, tu9(g/b) (woolen) garment

túg-A.SU túgaktum túg-ba clothing ration

(lú)túg-du8 felt maker, fuller (a craftsman making a special type of woven cloth, Sjöberg, AV Limet 128)

túg-du8-a felt (Steinkeller, OrAnt 19, 85-93)

túg-mu-dur7(BU)-ra dirty clothing, rags, mourning garments

túg-nì-bàra blanket

túg-šu-gur turban

tuk, tuku (reduplicated du12-du12) to acquire, obtain; to have, possess; to marry; to play a musical instrument (cf. reduplicated syllabic variant du-du in Dumuzi and Enkimdu 12, Sefati, Love Songs 337)

tuk4, tuku4 to tremble, quake, shiver (Foster, RA 75, 189); to buffet

 

gištukul mace, weapon, arms (Civl, AV Biggs 33)

tukum-bi, tukumbi if

túkur(KAxŠE) to chew, gnaw (kasāsu)

túl (public) fountain, well

túm, tùm to bring in, deliver; to take away (see Thomsen, Sumerian Language p. 133) Forms include: de6(DU) perf. sg.; túm(DU), tùm imperf. sg.; lah4(DU over DU) or lah5(DU.DU) perf. & imperf. pl.

Problems remain, however.  In OB there are  indications that the sg. forms are túm or tùm perf. and túm-mu imperf. There may be a link between this sign and ku4(r) in OS and Ur III (see Krecher, ZA 77, 7- 21); cf. the Ur III accounting phrase šà mu-TUM2-ra- ta "out of income." The Emesal equivalent of túm is ir. See Sallaberger, AV Schretter 557-576 for the following new description:  a) bring I = mit sich führen, geleiten. Used only with living persons or animals that can move by themselves. Forms are túm(DU) perf.sg., tùm imperf. sg., and plural lah4 or lah5 both perf. & imperf.; b) bring II = liefern "to deliver." Forms are de6 perf. sg., tùm imperf. sg.

túm (to be) worthy of, fitting for, suited to (-a/šè/ra) (ana ... šūluku) (Sallaberger, AV Schretter 573f.; Sjöberg, AV Wilcke 263 + n. 29)

túm-ma (field) produce tum9(IM), tumu(IM) wind tum9-mar-dú west wind; west tum9-mir north wind; north tum9-sa12-ti-um east wind; east tum9-ùlu south wind; south

tùn (pouch or receptacle); (an ax, often with a wood or copper determinative, probably to be read àga)

tùn - bar (or read agà?) to split with an ax

tur to be small, young; to diminish, reduce, deduct Cf. the reduplicated substantive di4-di4-lá (or du13-du13-lá) youngsters, little ones, children.

tur small, young; brief (cf. bànda)

TUR.ŠÈ kun5 tùr cattle pen, byre TÙR šilam

tuš to sit, take a seat; to settle, establish residence; to dwell, reside, stay, abide The standard grammars state that forms include: tuš perf. sg.; dúr-ru-u(n) perf. pl., imperf. sg. and pl. or durunx(DÚR.DÚR) in Presargonic Lagash texts (Thomsen, Sumerian Language p. 135; Edzard, Sumerian Grammar p. 78; Steinkeller, Or 48 [1979] 55f. n. 6). But it seems more likely that the distinction is actually tuš sg. vs. dúr(un) pl. irregardless of aspect. The infinitive, for example, is (tuš-)tuš-ù-dè.

tuš - ĝar → dúr - ĝar

U

u ten (Edzard, AV Klein 103); "many times" (in adverbial expressions like u-ta, u-še3, u-am3, see Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 70)

U.KID (read šita4 in → á-šita4)

U.UD.KID ni9-ĝar

ú plant, grass; food; grass-fed, free-range (animal)

ú-a food and drink, sustenance; provider (of a temple or land, a common royal epithet) (zāninu)

ĝišú-bíl-la charcoal (> upillû)

ú-du(l) supervisor of herds, chief shepherd

ú-du11(g) udug

ú-gu/gù - dé to become lost, disappear; to flee, escape

ú-ma-am animals

ú-rum property of (someone) cf. níg-ú-rum

 

ú-si4-an(-na) dusk, twilight

ú-sig, ú-si19 uzug5

ú - sù(g) to be served food, dine

ú-šim sweet-smelling grasses

ù spoil bank, causeway (Studevant-Nickman, JCS 63, 43-47; high ground(?), island(?) (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 132f.)

ù and, also, furthermore, moreover; (as correlative

ù ... ù u )

ù sleep

ù(-a), ù-u8-a, u8(-a) Woe! Alas!; lullaby

ù-di u6-di, ù-sá

ù-gul supplication, plea

ù-gul - ĝar to address a plea, pray

ù - ku(4) to fall asleep, put to sleep (cf. ù-nu-ku

sleeplessness) (Veldhuis, JCS 60, 30)

ù-luh offshoot, (tree) branch; scepter (fig.) (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 105 n. 90 )

ù-luh(-ha) - sù to send out offshoots, branches (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 88f. + p. 105 n. 90 )

ù-ma victory, triumph

ù-mu-un umun ù-na ready for battle ù-na-(a-)du11 letter

ù-nu-ku sleeplessness (Civil, AV Hallo 74)

ù-sá(g) (deep) sleep

ù-sakar/sar u4-sar

ú-sal (riverine) meadow

ú-sal-la - nú to rest contentedly, live in peace, "lie down in green pastures"

 

gišù-suh5

116f.)

 

(a species of pine) (ašūhu) (Powell, BSA 6,

ù-sún → sún

gišù-šub, gišNI-šub brickmould (see Steinkeller, AuOr 2, 139 for the reading of the variant)

ù-tu(d) tu(d)

u4(d) (ud) day, daylight; storm; time; time of death (as in the phrase u4-da-ni nu-me-a "before his time"); at the time of, when (in verbal clauses of the form u4 CLAUSE-a-CASE or in (pronominal) phrases of the form u4-(PRONOUN)-CASE)

u4-ba then, at this/that time; formerly

u4-bar7 midday

u4-bi-ta since, after that time; as nominalized phrase: (of) earlier days, former time, days gone by

u4-buru14(-ka) (at) harvest time

u4-da on the day, when, whenever, if; today; daily; as nominalized phrase opposite u4-bi-ta, (of) today (Ukg 6 iii 20'/23')

u4-dè-eš like the daylight

u4sunrise, east (perhaps to be read utu-è in contexts with a variant dutu-è, cf. Sjöberg, AV Wilcke 260)

u4-kúr-šè at a different time, in the future (OB legal) u4-nú(-a) day of the disappearance of the moon U4.dNANNA iti6

u4-sakar(SAR) crescent (of the moon); day of the first visibility of the new moon, beginning of the month.

Perhaps to be pronounced [uskar]; cf. the Akk. loan

uskāru.

 

u4-ul-lí-a, u4-ul-la in olden times, in days of old (cf. Akk. ullû)

u4-ul-lí-a-aš unto distant (future) days, forever

u4 - zal to pass, said of time; to spend, pass the time (in some activity); let the time pass, waste time, be late

u4-zal-le(-da) (at) daybreak, dawn, morning (cf. á-u4- zal-le)

5

u mušen wild goose (the iconic bird of Nanše) (Veldhuis, Education 294f.)

u5 to mount, board; to ride on; to transport

u5 superstructure; cabin (of a boat); high-water (mark)

u5-bímušen (a bird)

u6(g) awe, awesome vision, sight

u6-ga awesome, awe inspiring, wondrous

u6-di, ù-di awe, amazement, astonishment, wonder, marvel; daze, stupor (cf. ù-sá)

u6 - du11 to admire, wonder, marvel at, be in awe of; to provoke, inspire awe (Attinger, Eléments 739-749)

u6-nir, é-u6-nir ziggurat (complex) (ziqqurratu) (Waetzoldt, AV Klein 329-331)

u8 ewe (see also lahar) u8(-a) ù(-a)

u11-ri(2)-in, ùri(n) eagle

u18-lu ùlu

u4/ù-sar - a5

 

to sharpen, make pointed (previously read

 

u18-ru uru16

u4-sakar, but see Civil, JNES 43 (1984) 284; Cooper, Curse of Agade p. 245f.) (šêlu)

u4-sud-rá/da distant (future) days, long time; cf. u4-sud-rá-aš/šè unto distant days, forever

u4-šú sunset; u4-šú-uš daily

u4-tu(-ud)-da day of birth

 

ub, ib corner (angle); niche, recess; shrine; room

ub-líl-lá open air shrine (in a wall niche) (George, AV Black 114) (ibratu)

ub-šu-ukkin-na assembly (esp. poetic)

kušùb (a kind of drum)

ub4 pit, hole (cf. ab)

ubur teat; spout (of a vessel); see also → akan ud5 → uzud(ÙZ)

udu sheep, ram

udu-aslumx(A.LUM) long-fleeced sheep (aslu) (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 52)

(d)udug, ú-du11(g) male genie, spirit (good or evil); demon

udun oven, kiln

ug lion

ug5, ug7 → úš ugamušen raven

uĝnim army (conventionally read ugnim; for etymology see Selz, AV Römer 317)

ugu, úgu (A.KA) (or a-gù) pate, top (of the head) (muhhu); account (Englund, BBVO 10, 72 n. 242;

Hilgert, OIP 121, 385)

úgu-a - ĝar to charge to, put to the account of or at the disposal of

úgu-a - tuku to hold against/over someone

ugu4, ugu progenitor (male or female), begettor, engenderer

uguugu4-bi monkey

ugula foreman, overseer, officer

ugula-ĝešta/ĝéš-da officer (in charge) of sixty (men) (Steinkeller, ZA 69, 176-187)

úgur(SIG7) lintel (cf. úgur-ig door lintel, Gudea Cyl A 25:10)

úgur-igi eyebrow (šu'ru)

ùĝ people, population (reading ukù is obsolete; some maintain the older reading un as with alam/alan rather than alaĝ)

 

ùĝ-da-ga nearby folk, neighbors (lit. "people at (one's) side") (Steinkeller, Sale Documents 198)

ùĝ-íl bearer, porter

ùĝ-lu-a teeming people, multitude

ùĝ-šár-ra numerous people(s), multitude(s)

uh, úh spittle, slaver, mucus, phlegm; foam (wr. ah,

aah in Gudea) (cf. 11)

uh - du11 to spit Cf. aah-du11-ga spittle (of sorcery)

Gudea Cyl B 4:16

úh-luh cough (literally "cleaning out phlegm")

ukkin, ukken, unken assembly (for an etymology see Selz, AV Römer 316f.)

uktin(SIG7.ALAM) features (bunnannu) (cf. úlutin) úku(r) (ùkur) poor (person), pauper

úkuš(HÚL) cucumber

ul, ul-lí-a, ul-la ullûm) (cf. u4-ul-lí-a)

ul a Presargonic capacity measure = 1/4 gur-saĝ-ĝál = 36 sìla = ca. 30 liters

ul n. joy, happiness, pleasure; bud, flower, blossom (see Steinkeller, Iranica Antiqua 37 (2002) 361-365; Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma 201f.); beauty; adj. beautiful

ul-a, ul-la with joy, joyfully

ul - a5 to rejoice

ul4 to hasten, hurry, be quick; tr. to hurry, harrass, put pressure on (urruhu) (Civil, AV Hallo 74)

ul4-hé base of heaven, horizon (Frayne, RIME 1, 127) (šupuk šamê)

ul4-la-bé quickly

ùlu, u18-lu, imùlu south wind; storm, sandstorm

ùlu-di lamentation singer (perhaps derived from i-lu- di?)

ulušin(KAŠ.ZÍZ.A.AN) emmer beer úlutin(SIG7.ALAM) form (nabnītu) (cf. uktin) um-ma old (wise) women, alderwoman

um-me-da, umme(UMxME)-da → éme-da um-mi-a master scribe, craftsman, schoolmaster umah(LAGABxÚ.A) swamp (mihşu, agammu) umbin (human) nail, claw, talon, hoof umbisaĝ(ŠID) scribe

kušùmmu(d)(A.EDIN.LÁ) (ummud) waterskin (nādu)

umun, ù-mu-un lord (Emesal for en, also for nin in male gods' names, e.g. Nanše B iv 20)

úmun, umum knowledge, cleverness

 

ur-gi7(r) (domesticated) dog ur-gi7-tur (var, ur-tur) puppy ur-mah lion

ur-saĝ hero, warrior

ur-ur, UR%UR single combat, man to man (i.e. hand- to-hand) combat (Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50). Some read téš-téš. Note the ePSD reading lirum8(UR%UR) and cf. → lirum. Cf. ĝiš ur-ur-e/šè - lá to engage or compete in combat.

úr leg(s), hip(s), loin(s); lap; private parts; bottom, base, foundation, foot (of a tree)

gišúr tree trunk; log

ùr to sweep over/away, wipe off/away, flatten, level, destroy; to slide, slither, drag

ùr roof, ceiling (cf. ĝiš-ùr) For roof construction methods see Heimpel, CUSAS 5, 173f..

ur4 to gather, assemble

umuš good counsel, advice; discernment, judgment, sense; mind

 

ur5

 

spirit(s), mood; liver

UN kalam, ùĝ

ùn(BAD3)(-na) high (cf. ĝi6-ù/un-na midnight, si-ùn- na high point, zenith) (see also an(-na))

unu(g)ki the city Uruk

únu, unu6, únu-gal deity's private chamber, cella, sanctuary; divine dining room, banquet hall

ùnu(d) (chief) cattle herdsman, cowherd

ur beast of prey, dog, lion; in personal names of the type x-ur-ĝu10 champion(?), (mighty) man/person(?) (connect with ur5?) (some now read téš) (Zgoll, AOAT 246, 318; Cavigneaux, CM 19, 48-52)

ur-bar-ra wolf

ur(-bé) - gu7 to press, clash together, fight in a pack (reading uncertain, cf. téš-bé & UR.UR) (M. Green, JCS 30, 153; Michalowki, Lamentation p. 70; A.

Cavigneaux, CM 19, 50)

 

ur5(-ra) (interest-bearing) loan

ur5 this, this way, thus, so; negated: never

ur5-gin7 like this, thus

ur5 - ša4 to roar, bellow

ur5-šè(-àm) because of this, thus, therefore

ur5-tuku debtor

ur5 - ug7 to despair (Tinney, Nippur Lament 138 ad

36)

ur7 father-in-law

uri ki-uri

uruduURI (a large metal container) (Steinkeller, Third- Millennium Texts p. 32)

5

úriki(m), uri ki(m) the city Ur

ùri(n) gate-post, gate-pole (Heimpel, JNES 46, 208f.); standard

ùri(n) (urin) blood, bloody (cf. Cooper, Curse of Agade p. 251)

ùri(n) u11-ri-in

uru(ki), úru city, town; (referring to a specific city?) Most now read iri with Edzard, AV Civil 77-79, but see Lambert's strenuous rebuttal, AuOr 10, 256-258. Attinger, ZA 88, 167 n. 11, states that the OB writing úru is "in origin certainly the Emesal form of iri."

uru-bar(-ra) outskirts, suburbs

uru4 to plow, till

uru16(n)(EN), uru17(ULU3), u18(ULU3)-ru high, lofty, giant; powerful, mighty, strong (Ludwig, Išme-Dagan 107-113; Alster, AV Klein 10f.)

urudu, uruda (also a-ru12(EN)-da

urugal (or irigal) netherworld; grave (poetic)

us-ga (a kind of priest?); treasury(?) (conventionally translated as "fattening pen") (see Michalowski, Lamentation p. 104f.)

ús to be adjacent to, border on, come or bring up next to (-e); to lie or lean against, upon ; to follow, go immediately behind, chase

kušusàn, ù-sa-an whip (for construction and parts see Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 72)

ús (uš?) length, long side (in measurments)

usar, ušar, ùsar, ùšur friend, neighbor; cf. ùsar da- gi4-a "neighbor" (Steinkeller, Sales Docu-ments 242f.)

ussu eight (Edzard, AV Klein 103)

usu, ù-su physical strength, power; labor-force

 

building lot, foundation (platform)

uš-bar weaver

úš death; (blood(?) perhaps read uri4 and connect with

ùri?)

úš(TIL), ug7(TIL), ug5(BÀD) to die In OS úš is used for imperf. sg., ug5/ug7 elsewhere. In Ur III Drehem, ug7 is used for a group of dead animals of the same kind, ug7-ug7 for a variety of dead animals (Sallaberger, AfO 40/41, 53; Heimpel, JAOS 119, 523 contra Steinkeller, ZA 71, 25). The úš vs. ug7 distinc- tion may not have been maintained much beyond the Ur III period after which only ug7 is used.

11(KAxÚŠ) deadly spittle, venom, poison (cf. uh

and note that 11 also has the value uh4) ušbar mother-in-law

úšu thirty (Edzard, AV Klein 105)

ušum serpent

ušumgal(GAL+UŠUM), ušum-gal great serpent, "dragon" (poetic)

utu sun(light); the sun god Utu, city-god of Larsa

(d)utu-è sunrise, east (some read u4when determinative is lacking)

utu- šú u4-šú

útug, údug mace (reading šíta is obsolete)

útul tureen (written with the same sign as tu7 soup)

uzmušen (wild) duck (Veldhuis, Education 303) (the determinative is often omitted to avoid a double HU sign)

ÙZ uzud

uzu flesh, meat; determinative for body parts and meat cuts

uzu-a-bala meat broth (ummar mê šīri) (Steinkeller, BSA 8, 49 + n. 5)

uzud(ÙZ) (female) goat Some maintain the old reading ùz; others hypothesize a form ud5. Steinkeller, Third-Millennium Texts 47, assumes uzud loses the second /u/ when another vowel follows, becoming

/uzd/.

uzud-saĝ bellwether; foremost one, leader

uzug5, usug5 sexually unclean (syllabic writings exist, especially in Gudea texts, e.g. ú-sig, ú-si19(KAxUD), ú-zug4)

Z

za (precious) stone

za An old auxiliary verb appearing in the dub-dab5 - za onomatopoetic constructions, for which see Civil, JCS 20, 119ff.; Römer, SKIZ 182f.; Black, AV Wilcke 35ff. Cavigneaux, ASJ 9, 50, suggests za = ša4 = ša5(AK). Bauer, AoN 19, 7, suggests "tönen" or the like.

za-am-za-am (a musical instrument) gišza-ba-lum (a variety of juniper?) za-dím, zadim lapidary, stone cutter na4za-gìn lapis lazuli

za-gìn blue; lustrous, bright, shining, pure

za-lam(-ĝar) tent

za-pa-áĝ voice, sound; tumult; throat (cf. zi-pa-áĝ)

gišza-ra pivot stone or cap, door socket

ZA-tenû ad4

zà(g) (zag) (right) side, shoulder; (outer) edge, outskirts; border, frontier; end, limit

zà(g) owner's mark, emblem (cf. zà - šú) zà(-ĝar-ra) shrine

zà - dib to pass in front, go at the fore

 

zà-du8 threshold

zà-gal, zà-gu-la seat of honor

zà-hi-linisi conventionally "cress," but Civil, AuOr 5, 30f. translates "(a prickly plant)" and Ferwada, Isin 43 translates "(seed of) Vicia ervilia," i.e. bitter vetch

zà - kéš to bind, fasten, gird on (garments, weapons)

gišzà-mí lyre (or perhaps harp; see Lawergren & Gurney, Iraq 49, 40ff.)

zà-mí/me praise; (an OB hymn type, a hymn of praise)

zà-mí - du11 to say/sing the praises of (Attinger, Eléments 755-761)

zà-mu(-k) end of the year, New Year

zà-še strong thighs, running ability

zà - šú/šu4 to apply an owner's mark; to brand (Foxvog, ZA 85, 1-3)

uruduzà-šú branding-iron

zà - tag to push away, shove aside, reject; to overwhelm, overthrow

zabar, zàbar (OS) bronze (Reiter, AOAT 249, 288ff.); bronze vessel, bronze-ware, bronzes; mirror (Steinkeller, ASJ 9, 347-49)

zabar-dab5 (a powerful royal official) (Charpin, Clergé d'Ur 236-240; Sallaberger, Der Kultischer Kalender I 211 n. 997; 231 n. 1103 "etwa oberster Mundschenk")

zabar-šu hand-mirror (Steinkeller, ASJ 9, 347-49)

zadim za-dím

záh, zàh v. to flee, escape; n. fugitive

zal to flow; to melt; to pass (time)

zalag (reduplicated zazalag) (to be) pure, shining, bright; to be clean (cf. kuš zalag-ga cleaned hides, CUSAS 13, 286)

zapah(ŠU.BAD) palm of the hand; span (= ½ kùš = ca. 9 3/4 inches) (Civil, AV Biggs 23) (ūţu)

zar, zàr (hay)stack, sheaves; heap, mound (Civil, Farmer's Instructions p. 91f.)

zar(-re-eš) - tab to gather up or pile (grain stalks) into stacks

zar-re-eš - tál to lay out (grain stalks) in stacks

ze(r) zi(r)

zé(r) zi(r), bu(r)

zé-eh, zah, zahda(ŠÁH.ZÉ.DA) piglet (cf. šáh) (šahû) (Steinkeller, NABU 2007 p. 18)

zèh (read now → munusáš-gàr)

zi life; breath; throat

zi(d) to be faithful, trusty, steadfast, true, righteous, good, fine

zi(-da) adj. right, upright, true, faithful; good, fine;

n. right (hand or side)

zi(g) to rise, raise; to get excited; to remove, expend; to be excepted, left out (NABU 1994/ 82)

zi-du just, righteous (person)

zi-ga mobilization, levy; (something) raised

zi - gi4 to calm down

zi(l) zíl

zi(r), zé(r), ze(r), sír, súr to slip, slide; to efface, erase; to cancel, annul (JAOS 119, 523); to raze, destroy; (to cut or remove plants)

zi - ir to be troubled, worried

zi - pa-áĝ/an to draw breaths, breathe

zi-pa-áĝ nostril, airhole; throat(?) (Emesal ši-pa-áĝ; cf.

za-pa-áĝ)

zi - pà to take an oath; to conjure

 

zi-qùm royal road station (Ur III)

zi-šà breath of life

zi-šà - ĝál to inspire, encourage

zi-šà-ĝál n. (divine) encouragement, inspiration; adj. life-giving

zi - túm to betake one's life to, to save one's life, take refuge

zi-u4-sud-rá life of long duration

anšeZI-ZI → sisi

zì(d) (zíd) flour (In OS the sign is ŠÈ-tenû)

zì - dub to heap up, sprinkle flour (ritually), offer flour

zì-dub-dub offering flour

zì-sig15 coarse flour (hišiltum)

ZÌ.ŠE → dabin

zíb - gíd to hold the reins (Civil, AuOr 17-18, 184 n. 18)

zikum(ENGUR) heaven

zíl(TAG), zi(l), zil-zil v. and adj. (to be) good, pleasing

zíz emmer wheat

ZÍZ.AN (read imĝaĝa3?) dehulled emmer (?) See Cohen, NABU 1990/ 134, for disc. of ZÍZ.A.AN =

/udra/ = utrû (see CAD kunāšu LL); for ZÍZ.A (OS Nippur) read thus úd-duru5. Cf. ZÍZ = úd = tiktum (a type of flour).

zu (OS also su) to know; to know how, be able; to acknowledge, make known, proclaim; to learn, discover; to inform, teach

zu-a, OS su-a acquaintance (elliptical for lú-zu-a) tooth, fang; point, tine (of a tool or weapon)

zú - bir9(NE) (also read gir10) to laugh

zú - gu7, zú - ku5 to bite (off)

zú - gub to bite, eat (Civil, JNES 23, 9)

zú-lum date (Civil, AV Biggs 33 understands the underlying form to be /zulumb/)

zuh to steal

zuh-a stolen

zukum(NÚMUN) to step (on), tread, trample

zulumhí → suluhu

zur to break, raze (var. of zi-ir?)

Abbreviations

AfO Archiv für Orientforschung (Berlin/Wien)

Analysing Lit. Sum. J. Ebeling & G. Cunningham, eds., Analysing Literary Sumerian (London, 2007)

AOAT Alter Orient und Altes Testament (Neukirchen-Vluyn)

ASJ Acta Sumerologica Japonica (Tokyo)

Attinger, Eléments Pascal Attinger, Eléments de linguistique sumérienne. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis. Sonderband (Fribourg/Göttingen, 1993)

AuOr Aula Orientalis (Barcelona)

Anniversay Volumes (Festschriften)

AV Biggs Studies Presented to Robert D. Biggs. Assyriological Studies 27 (Chicago, 2007)

AV Black Your Praise is Sweet. A Memorial Volume for Jeremy Black (London, 2010)

AV Birot Miscellanea Babylonica. Mélanges offerts à Maurice Birot (Paris,1985)

AV Cagni Studi sul Vicino Oriente antico dedicati alla memoria di Luigi Cagni (Napoli, 2000)

AV Civil Velles Paraules. Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Honor of Miguel Civil, Aula Orientalis IX (Barcelona, 1993)

AV Diakonoff  Societies and Languages of the Ancient NearEast. Studies in Honour of I.M. Diakonoff (Warminster, 1982)

AV Falkenstein Heidelberger Studien zum Alten Orient. Adam Falkenstein zum 17. September 1966 (Wiesbaden, 1967)

AV Hallo The Tablet and the Scroll. Near Eastern Studies in Honor of William W. Hallo (Bethesda, 1993)

AV Kantor Essays in Ancient Civilization Presented to Helene J. Kantor (SAOC 47, Chicago 1989)

AV Kutscher kinattūtu ša dārâti. Raphael Kutscher Memorial Volume (Tel Aviv, 1993)

 

AV Jacobsen II Riches Hidden in Secret Places. Ancient Near Eastern Studies in Memory of Thorkild Jacobsen (Winona Lake, 2002)

AV Matouš Festschrift Lubor Matouš. Az Eötvös Tudományegyetem Ókori Történenti tanszékeinek kiadványai 25 (Budapest, 1978)

AV Römer dubsar anta-men. Studien zur Altorientalistik. Festschrift für Willem H. Ph. Römer. AOAT 253 (Münster, 1998)

AV Schretter Von Sumer bis Homer. AOAT 325 (2004)

AV Sigrist On the Third Dynasty of Ur. Studies in Honor of Marcel Sigrist (Boston, 2008)

AV Wilcke Literatur, Politik und Recht in Mesopotamien. Festschrift für Claus Wilcke. Orientalia Biblica et Christiana 14 (Wiesbaden, 2003)

BaM Baghdader Mitteilungen (Berlin)

Borger, AbZ R. Borger, Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste. AOAT 33 (1978-)

BSA Bulletin on Sumerian Argriculture (Cambridge, MA)

CDLI (UCLA-CDLI) University of California at Los Angeles - Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative

CDLJ Cuneiform Digital Library Journal

CM Cuneiform Monographs (Groningen)

Civil, Farmer's Instructions M. Civil, The Framer's Instructions (Barcelona, 1994)

CUSAS Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology (Bethesda, 2007-)

Englund, Fischerei Robert K. Englund, Organisation und Verwaltung der Ur III-Fischerei. Berliner Beiträge zum Vorderen Orient 10 (Berlin, 1990)

ePSD The Electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (on the Internet)

FAOS Freiburger Altorientalische Studien (Wiesbaden)

Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma E. Flückiger-Hawker, Urnamma of Ur in Sumerian Literary Tradition. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 166 (Fribourg/Göttingen, 1999)

JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society (New Haven)

JCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies (Cambridge, MA)

JESHO Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient (Leiden)

JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies (Chicago)

Marchesi, LUMMA G. Marchesi, LUMMA in the Onomasticon and Literature of Ancient Mesopotamia (Padova, 2006)

Michalowski, Lamentation Piotr Michalowski, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur (Winona Lake, 1989)

MSL Materials for the Sumerian Lexicon (Rome)

NABU Nouvelles Assyriologiques Brèves et Utilitaires (Paris)

Oppenheim, Eames A.L. Oppenheim, Catalogue of the Cuneiform Tablets of the Wilberforce Eames Babylonian Collection in the New York Public Library (1948)

Or Orientalia (Rome)

OrAnt Oriens Antiquus (Rome)

Priest ands Officials (1996) K. Watanabe (ed.), Priests and Officials in the Ancient Near East (Heidelberg, 1996)

PSD The Sumerian Dictionary of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1984-1998)

RA Revue d'assyriologie et d'archéologie orientale (Paris)

RAI Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale

RlA Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie (Berlin)

RIME1 Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods vol. 1 (Toronto, 2008)

Sallaberger, Töpfer W. Sallaberger, Der Babylonische Töpfer und seine Gefäße (Ghent, 1996)

Sefati, Love Songs, Y. Sefati, Love Songs in Sumerian Literature (Ramat Gan, 1998)

SEL Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici (Rome)

Selz, UGASL G. Selz, Untersuchungen zur Götterwelt des altsumerischen Stadtstaates von Lagaš (Philadelphia, 1995)

Steinkeller, Sale Documents Piotr Steinkeller, Sale Documents of the Ur-III-Period. FAOS 17 (Stuttgart, 1989)

Steinkeller, Third Millennium Texts Piotr Steinkeller & J.N. Postgate, Third-Millennium Legal and Administrative Texts in the Iraq Museum, Baghdad. (Winona Lake, 1992)

StOr Studia Orientalia (Helsinki)

Tinney, Nippur Lament Steve Tinney, The Nippur Lament (Philadelphia, 1966)

Veldhuis, Education Niek Veldhuis, Elementary Education at Nippur. CM 22 (Groningen, 1997) Westenholz, ECTJ Aage Westenholz, Early Cuneiform Texts from Jena (Copenhagen, 1975)

WZKM Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes (Vienna)

YNER Yale Near Eastern Researches (New Haven)

YOS Yale Oriental Series, Babylonian Texts (New Haven)

ZA Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie (Berlin/New York)

Güncelleme Tarihi: 02 Temmuz 2019, 17:54
YORUM EKLE